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Item Open AccessSupporting resilience: investigating social support as a mediator of resilience in RCMP members(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2000-08-26) Abrams, Ailesh R.Background: In a Canada-wide survey of public safety personnel, Royal Canadian Mounted Police members (RCMP) scored especially high on screening measures of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder (PD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) (Carleton et al, 2018; Di Nota et al; 2020). Social support and resilience have been linked across multiple studies to symptom reduction in the aforementioned disorders (Batinić et al, 2009; Beadel et al, 2016; Bitsika et al, 2010; Lee et al, 2014; McCanlies et al, 2018; Pietrzak et al, 2010; Sangalang & Gee, 2012). Researchers suggest that resilience is a trait factor, whereas social support can vary across the lifespan; therefore, the current study was designed to identify a hypothesised mediation effect of social support in the relationship between resilience and symptom measures. Method: There were 1207 RCMP members who completed the web-based Canadian Institute for Public Safety Research and Treatment (CIPSRT) prevalence survey. Self-report measures of GAD, PTSD, PD, MDD, resilience (BRS), and social support (SPS) were used as independent variables in regression analyses assessing mediation effects of social support in the relationship between resilience and symptom measures. All analyses were bootstrapped with 5,000 samples to provide robust probability estimates and confidence intervals. Results: For the GAD model, GAD symptoms were significantly associated with SPS (b = -.11, all ps < .001) and BRS scores (b = .34) and there were significant total (β = -.60) and indirect effects of the model (b = -.03; 95% CI [-.05, -.02]). For the PTSD model, PTSD symptoms were significantly associated with SPS (b = -.60, all ps < .001) and BRS scores (b = .35) and there were significant total (β = -2.29) and indirect effects of the model (b = -.05; 95% CI [-.07, -.03]). For the PD model, PD symptoms were significantly associated with SPS (b = -.10, all ps < .001) and BRS scores (b = .36) and there were significant total (β = -.46) and indirect effects of the model (b = -.04; 95% CI [-.06, -.02]). For the MDD model, MDD symptoms were significantly associated with SPS (b = -.22, all ps < .001) and BRS scores (b = .34) and there were significant total (β = -.70) and indirect effects of the model (b = -.06; 95% CI [-.08, -.04]). Discussion: Social support significantly mediated the relationship between resilience and symptoms measured in each of the models; however, greater variance was explained by the relationship between resilience and each symptom measure. The current results suggest that resilience is a key correlate of symptom variation, and social support may be a critical facet of resilience; accordingly, resilience may be impacted by environmental factors. Item Open AccessVisual similarity in masking and priming: The critical role of task relevance(University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, 2007) Enns, James T.; Oriet, ChrisCognitive scientists use rapid image sequences to study both the emergence of conscious perception (visual masking) and the unconscious processes involved in response preparation (masked priming). The present study asked two questions: (1) Does image similarity influence masking and priming in the same way? (2) Are similarity effects in both tasks governed by the extent of feature overlap in the images or only by task-relevant features? Participants in Experiment 1 classified human faces using a single dimension even though the faces varied in three dimensions (emotion, race, sex). Abstract geometric shapes and colors were tested in the same way in Experiment 2. Results showed that similarity reduced the visibility of the target in the masking task and increased response speed in the priming task, pointing to a double-dissociation between the two tasks. Results also showed that only task-relevant (not objective) similarity influenced masking and priming, implying that both tasks are influenced from the beginning by intentions of the participant. These findings are interpreted within the framework of a reentrant theory of visual perception. They imply that intentions can influence object formation prior to the separation of vision for perception and vision for action. Item Open AccessExploring item order in anxiety-related constructs: Practical impacts of serial position(2012-04) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel, A.; Osborn, Jason, A.; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.The present study was designed to test for item order effects by measuring four distinct constructs that contribute substantively to anxiety-related psychopathology (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, injury/illness sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty). Participants (n = 999; 71% women) were randomly assigned to complete measures for each construct presented in one of two modalities: (a) items presented cohesively as measures or (b) items presented randomly interspersed with one another. The results suggested that item order had a relatively small impact on item endorsement, response patterns, and reliabilities. The small impact was such that item order appears unlikely to influence clinical decisions related to these measures. These findings not only have implications for these and other similar measures, but further inform a long-standing debate about whether item grouping is a substantial concern in measurement. Item Open AccessA controlled investigation of continuing pain education for long-term care staff(Hindawi, 2013) Ghandehari, Omeed, O; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Williams, Jaime; Thorpe, Lilian; Alfano, Dennis, P.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Malloy, David, C.; Martin, Ronald, R.; Rahaman, Omar; Zwakhale, Sandra, M.G.; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Hunter, Paulette, V.; Lix, Lisa, M.The underassessment and undertreatment of pain in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities has been well documented. Gaps in staff knowledge and inaccurate beliefs have been identified as contributors.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of an expert-based continuing education program in pain assessment/management for LTC staff.METHODS: Participants included 131 LTC staff members who were randomly assigned to either an interactive pain education (PE) program, which addressed gaps in knowledge such as medication management, or an interactive control program consisting of general dementia education without a specific clinical focus. Participants attended three sessions, each lasting 3 h, and completed measures of pain-related knowledge and attitudes/beliefs before, immediately after and two weeks following the program. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants to gauge perception of the training program and barriers to implementing pain-related strategies.RESULTS: Analysis using ANOVA revealed that PE participants demonstrated larger gains compared with control participants with regard to pain knowledge and pain beliefs. Barriers to implementing pain-related strategies certainly exist. Nonetheless, qualitative analyses demonstrated that PE participants reported that they overcame many of these barriers and used pain management strategies four times more frequently than control participants.CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous research, the present study found that the interactive PE program was effective in changing pain beliefs and improving knowledge. Continuing PE in LTC has the potential to address knowledge gaps among front-line LTC providers. Item Open AccessThe Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: A Review with a Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Item Content and Factor Structure(Public Library of Science, 2013-03-01) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel, A.; Teale, Michelle, J. N.; Welch, Patrick, G.; Abrams, Murray, P.; Robinson, Thomas; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) is a commonly used freely available self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Despite its popularity, several recent investigations have called into question the robustness and suitability of the commonly used 4-factor 20-item CES-D model. The goal of the current study was to address these concerns by confirming the factorial validity of the CES-D. Item Open AccessNative reading direction influences lateral biases in the perception of shape from shading(Taylor & Francis, 2014-12-24) Smith, Austen, K.; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista, E.; Elias, Lorin, J.Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers. Item Open AccessTake your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice(Frontiers Media S.A., 2015-08-17) Harms, Victoria, L.; Poon, Lisa, J.O.; Smith, Austen, K.; Elias, Lorin, J.Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. Item Open AccessIncidental statistical summary representation over time(Arvo, 2016-02-01) Oriet, Chris; Hozempa, KadieInformation taken in by the human visual system allows individuals to form statistical representations of sets of items. One's knowledge of natural categories includes statistical information, such as average size of category members and the upper and lower boundaries of the set. Previous research suggests that when subjects attend to a particular dimension of a set of items presented over an extended duration, they quickly learn about the central tendency of the set. However, it is unclear whether such learning can occur incidentally, when subjects are not attending to the relevant dimension of the set. The present study explored whether subjects could reproduce global statistical properties of a set presented over an extended duration when oriented to task-irrelevant properties of the set. Subjects were tested for their memory of its mean, its smallest and largest exemplars, the direction of its skew, and the relative distribution of the items. Subjects were able to accurately recall the average size circle, as well as the upper and lower boundaries of a set of 4,200 circles displayed over an extended period. This suggests that even without intending to do so, they were encoding and updating a statistical summary representation of a task-irrelevant attribute of the circles over time. Such incidental encoding of statistical properties of sets is thus a plausible mechanism for establishing a representation of typicality in category membership. Item Open AccessInto the unknown: A review and synthesis of contemporary models involving uncertainty(Elsevier, 2016-02-27) Carleton, R. NicholasThe current review and synthesis serves to define and contextualize fear of the unknown relative to related constructs, such as intolerance of uncertainty, and contemporary models of emotion, attachment, and neuroticism. The contemporary models appear to share a common core in underscoring the impor- tance of responses to unknowns. A recent surge in published research has explored the transdiagnostic impact of not knowing on anxiety and related pathologies; as such, there appears to be mounting evidence for fear of the unknown as an important core transdiagnostic construct. The result is a robust foundation for transdiagnostic theoretical and empirical explorations into fearing the unknown and intolerance of uncertainty. Item Open AccessFear of the unknown: One fear to rule them all?(Elsevier, 2016-03-29) Carleton, R. NicholasThe current review and synthesis was designed to provocatively develop and evaluate the proposition that “fear of the unknown may be a, or possibly the, fundamental fear” (Carleton, 2016) underlying anxiety and therein neuroticism. Identifying fundamental transdiagnostic elements is a priority for clinical theory and practice. Historical criteria for identifying fundamental components of anxiety are described and revised criteria are offered. The revised criteria are based on logical rhetorical arguments using a constituent reductionist postpositivist approach supported by the available empirical data. The revised criteria are then used to assess several fears posited as fundamental, including fear of the unknown. The review and synthesis concludes with brief recommendations for future theoretical discourse as well as clinical and non-clinical research. Item Open AccessIntolerance of Uncertainty: A Temporary Experimental Induction Procedure(Public Library of Science, 2016-06-02) Mosca, Oriana; Lauriola, Marco; Carleton, R. NicholasIntolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trans-diagnostic construct involved in anxiety and related disorders. Research focused on cross-sectional reporting, manipulating attitudes toward objective and impersonal events or on treatments designed to reduce IU in clinical populations. The current paper presents an experimental procedure for laboratory manipulations of IU and tests mediation hypotheses following the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model. Item Open AccessHierarchical factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short form (IUS-12) in the Italian version(Cises, Srl, 2016-09) Lauriola, Marco; Mosca, Oriana; Carleton, R. NicholasDespite widespread use, few translations are available for the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short form (IUS-12) as well as limited research on its psychometric properties in Italy. Moreover, recent evi- dence has suggested a multifaceted hierarchical structure for this scale. We compared the two-factor model to second-order and bi-factor models, in which a General IU factor was posited with two more nar- row factors: Prospective IU and Inhibitory IU. Models were tested on a pooled dataset of students (N = 609) taking the IUS-12 alone or with other IUS-27 items. The bi-factor model fitted the sample data better than alternative models. The general factor accounted for 80% of the item variance. Presentation mode did not impact scalar invariance. Convergent validity with neuroticism, need for closure, and the uncertainty response scale was high for the total score. As such, scoring the IUS-12 total score is recommended in clinical research and assessment. Item Open AccessParental perspectives on the utility of a parent-administered program to treat anxiety in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017) Waiting, ShanelleAnxiety symptoms are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; White, Oswald, Ollendick, & Scahill, 2009). Evidence suggests that modified Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) programs can reduce anxiety symptoms in children with ASD, but these programs are not widely accessible (Chalfant, Rappee, & Carroll, 2007). The aim of the present study was to explore parents’ perspectives of the feasibility of a parent-guided, Internet-delivered CBT (ICBT) program for the treatment of anxiety in children with ASD. Two primary research questions were explored: 1) what are potential obstacles or barriers to parents’ being able to participate in this type of program and 2) what aspects should be in place in order to help parents successfully deliver this program? Four parents of children with ASD and anxiety participated in individual interviews. Data was coded using thematic analyses. Analyses identified 4 potential barriers to success: time commitment, challenges in teaching and engaging their child, consistent delivery of the program across parents and environment, and having a good fit of program for individual and children. Parents identified 5 program features that should be provided for successful delivery: therapist support, clear explanation of terms and strategies, background and rationale for the program, inclusion of the child in the treatment, and the ability to deliver the program through multiple devices. Our findings suggest that ICBT is a feasible treatment option for parents to administer to their child with ASD and anxiety. Results will inform program development to increase the success of parents in delivering the intervention. Item Open AccessCentrality bias for rejecting lineups: examining the impact of wildcard positioning on youth eyewitness choosing behaviour(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Adams, AlyssaEyewitnesses can be extremely important figures in the criminal justice system. However, there are many factors that can affect their abilities to make correct decisions when viewing photographic lineups. The age of an eyewitness can greatly impact their ability to view, comprehend, and ultimately make a decision when viewing a lineup. Zajac and Karageorge (2009) discovered that by placing a wildcard (a salient rejection option) in a lineup, children are more likely to correctly reject target-absent photo arrays. This simple technique allows children to reject a lineup, while still being able to make a choice. The present study focused on the physical location (positioning) of the wildcard in the photo array to determine if the placement of the wildcard impacted youth witness identification decisions. Further, this study sought to examine if older children (aged 11-to-15 years) benefited from the inclusion of the wildcard in a lineup, as younger children have. Participants were recruited from a summer science camp to view a brief video. After a day delay, youths were shown two lineups (one male, and one female). Results demonstrated the salient placement of the wildcard did not have an effect in either lineup, however target presence was a factor in selection rates for the female lineup. In the female lineup, the correct target was selected significantly more often than the innocent suspect, a trend not found with the male lineup. Item Open AccessClient correspondence in internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy: an examination into client communication with therapists and symptom improvement(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Couture, Catherine A.Background: Internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) is an efficacious treatment for anxiety and depression. Most ICBT programs include therapist assistance in the form of secure online messaging; however, a high degree of variability has been found in the content of client and therapist correspondence. Recent research conducted by Svartvatten et al. (2015) found that client statements suggesting alliance bolstering and text expressing a positive change in mood after the implementation of a suggested skill or exercise appear to correlate with greater symptom improvement. Purpose: The current study sought to examine: (1) if previously identified themes in client communication with their Internet therapist (Svartvatten et al., 2015) would replicate in a transdiagnostic ICBT program for depression and anxiety; and (2) if these themes correlated with symptom improvement and treatment completion. Method: The present study used data from 80 randomly selected patients from a previously published trial of ICBT for depression and or anxiety. Client emails (on average 5.69 per client) were examined for the presence of 10 themes reported by Svartvatten et al. (2015). Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of all themes between the two studies. Further, in the current study, greater frequency of statements classified as maladaptive repetitive thinking and problems with treatment content correlated with smaller improvements in symptoms of anxiety from pre- to post-treatment. Limitations: Different material was presented to clients in the current study compared to clients in Svartvatten et al.’s (2015) study. Implications: This research provides a better understanding of the parameters of client communication and information for future therapists regarding the content of clients’ correspondence in ICBT. Item Open AccessMemory unitization and retrieval-induced forgetting for DRM word lists(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Stewart, Kaiden M.As a target memory is recalled or practiced, its competitors are suppressed, making them more difficult to recall in future attempts. This is called retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF; Anderson, Björk, & Björk, 1994), and is evidenced by lesser recall for unpracticed members of a partially practiced list (RP- items) than for members of an unpracticed list (NRP items). The RIF effect, while extremely robust, is not immutable. Directed integration of items into a unified knowledge structure has been shown to greatly reduce or even eliminate the RIF effect (Anderson & McCulloch, 1999). Additionally, high associate word lists, those with greater semantic relatedness, have been shown to result in spontaneous integration (Bäuml & Kuhbandner, 2003). In this study, we combined these factors, along with delay, into a 3 x 2 x 2 x 2 (integration x associativity x delay x set) mixed-model design, using Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) word lists (Stadler, Roediger, & McDermott, 1999), in order to examine the operation of these mediating factors. While set (RIF effect) and delay were statistically significant, we observed no main effects of either integration or associativity. Additionally, there were no statistically significant interactions, indicating that RIF can be robust even to those factors, like integration and associativity, which under certain circumstances reduce its effects. Item Open AccessAdults’ perceptions of children who disclose a transgression to peers or adults(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Harvey, Madison B.Children who witness or experience a transgression often do not disclose the event to anyone. There are a variety of reasons why a child may not disclose this event, such as being asked to keep it a secret, fear that they will not be believed, or concerns about their safety. When children do disclose, it may be to an adult or another child. Yet, it has not been established how these peer- to-peer disclosures are perceived by adults. The present study examined adult perceptions of children who disclose (or not) to a peer and children who disclose (or not) to an adult. Participants rated children on measures of credibility, honesty, and accuracy after hearing a recorded conversation of a child discussing an event to either a peer or an adult. Results indicate that children who disclosed a transgression were perceived as less credible, less honest, and less accurate when talking to another child. This has significant implications for the justice system, as it demonstrates that children who disclose a transgression may be seen as less credible witnesses. Item Open AccessThe effect of trauma history on mood sensitivity to perimenopausal estradiol fluctuation(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Wozniak, RashellA woman’s risk of depression increases 2-3 times during the menopause transition (i.e., ‘perimenopause’), which constitutes the five or so years leading up the last menstrual period. It is hypothesized that the increased estradiol fluctuation, which accompanies the menopause transition, may play a role. Women who display an increased sensitivity to such fluctuations may be particularly vulnerable to developing depression during this time. A history of abuse has been found to predict increased sensitivity to hormonal fluctuation across the menstrual cycle; however, it has never been examined as a predictor of mood sensitivity to the hormonal fluctuations associated with the menopause transition. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine perimenopausal estradiol fluctuation in relation to weekly mood in women with and without a history of sexual or physical abuse. Fifteen perimenopausal women were recruited, 9 with a history of sexual or physical abuse, and 6 without. Participants provided twelve weekly urine samples for the measurement of a metabolite of estradiol, and completed two scales to measure mood and depressive symptoms. Results suggested a nonsignificant interaction between trauma history, absolute change of E1G, and the direction of change on CES-D and PANAS-X scores. After further examination, there was a significant interaction when examining those with a history of early abuse (before age 13), on CES-D and PANAS-X scales. Therefore, women with a history of early abuse, during perimenopause, may be at greater risk of depressed mood due to E1G fluctuation. Item Open AccessDevelopment of mathematical concepts in grade 4 students(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Klisowsky, KrissieMathematical concepts help build a knowledge base for children to learn more complex mathematical skills, such as algebra (Alibali, Knuth, Hattikudur, McNeil, & Stephens, 2007). The goals of this study were to observe the development of mathematical concepts and study their relationship with working memory. The additive and multiplicative mathematical concepts investigated were inversion (a + b − b, d × e ÷ e), associativity (a + b − c, d × e ÷ f), and equivalence (a + b + c = a + _, d × e × f = d × _). The study was the first phase of a longitudinal study. The participants consisted of 50 students in Grade 4. Two sessions were completed: solving mathematical equations (12 additive problems, 12 multiplicative problems) and a working memorytest battery. Accuracy was highest on addditive and multiplicative versions of inversion, followed by associativity, then equivalence. There were significantly higher results for additive problems compared to multiplicative problems. Shortcut use was highest on additive versions of inversion, followed by equivalence, then associativity. When comparing scores for multiplicative problems to additive problems, equivalence was the only strategy to increase in shortcut use; inversion and associatively both decreased for multiplicative problems. The results showed that as working memory increased the accuracy increased. This research provides a better understanding of how mathematical concepts develop and allows for a clear portrayal of the differences between problem types at this developmental age. Item Open AccessTeaching diverse students: exploring factors contributing to multicultural efficacy(Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2017-04) Chahar Mahali, SagharThe rapid increase in immigration in different parts of Canada calls for the implementation of effective teaching practices that accommodate cultural diversity. Many White teachers enter classrooms with limited cross-cultural awareness and low levels of confidence. Teachers’ lack of confidence may enhance their anxiety levels and negatively impact diverse students’ academic achievements. Therefore, teaching a heterogeneous body of students requires teachers to have multicultural efficacy (ME). This notion is the extent to which teachers believe in themselves as capable and confident individuals to deal with the challenges that teaching in multicultural environments imposes upon them. The investigation of many factors (e.g., ethnicity, political orientation, cross-cultural experiences, and extraversion) impacting ME have produced mixed results. The purpose of the current study was to explore the ME of preservice teachers at different academic years, the contributing factors to ME, and the relationship between ME and anxiety levels. 110 preservice teachers enrolled in the Faculty of Education at the University of Regina were asked to complete measures of political orientation, ME, cross-cultural experiences, extraversion, and teacher burnout. Senior and junior students did not vary in terms of their ME levels. There was a negative association between preservice teachers’ ME and anxiety levels. Higher levels of preservice teachers’ ME were predicted by lower anxiety levels and more frequent cross-cultural experiences in their childhood and adolescence. By better understanding ME and its determining factors, appropriate training practices for preservice teachers can be offered in order to create positive school climates for diverse students and teachers.