Browsing Psychology Faculty by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 95
Results Per Page
Item Open AccessVisual similarity in masking and priming: The critical role of task relevance(University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw, 2007) Enns, James T.; Oriet, ChrisCognitive scientists use rapid image sequences to study both the emergence of conscious perception (visual masking) and the unconscious processes involved in response preparation (masked priming). The present study asked two questions: (1) Does image similarity influence masking and priming in the same way? (2) Are similarity effects in both tasks governed by the extent of feature overlap in the images or only by task-relevant features? Participants in Experiment 1 classified human faces using a single dimension even though the faces varied in three dimensions (emotion, race, sex). Abstract geometric shapes and colors were tested in the same way in Experiment 2. Results showed that similarity reduced the visibility of the target in the masking task and increased response speed in the priming task, pointing to a double-dissociation between the two tasks. Results also showed that only task-relevant (not objective) similarity influenced masking and priming, implying that both tasks are influenced from the beginning by intentions of the participant. These findings are interpreted within the framework of a reentrant theory of visual perception. They imply that intentions can influence object formation prior to the separation of vision for perception and vision for action. Item Open AccessExploring item order in anxiety-related constructs: Practical impacts of serial position(2012-04) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel, A.; Osborn, Jason, A.; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.The present study was designed to test for item order effects by measuring four distinct constructs that contribute substantively to anxiety-related psychopathology (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, injury/illness sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty). Participants (n = 999; 71% women) were randomly assigned to complete measures for each construct presented in one of two modalities: (a) items presented cohesively as measures or (b) items presented randomly interspersed with one another. The results suggested that item order had a relatively small impact on item endorsement, response patterns, and reliabilities. The small impact was such that item order appears unlikely to influence clinical decisions related to these measures. These findings not only have implications for these and other similar measures, but further inform a long-standing debate about whether item grouping is a substantial concern in measurement. Item Open AccessA controlled investigation of continuing pain education for long-term care staff(Hindawi, 2013) Ghandehari, Omeed, O; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Williams, Jaime; Thorpe, Lilian; Alfano, Dennis, P.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Malloy, David, C.; Martin, Ronald, R.; Rahaman, Omar; Zwakhale, Sandra, M.G.; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Hunter, Paulette, V.; Lix, Lisa, M.The underassessment and undertreatment of pain in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities has been well documented. Gaps in staff knowledge and inaccurate beliefs have been identified as contributors.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of an expert-based continuing education program in pain assessment/management for LTC staff.METHODS: Participants included 131 LTC staff members who were randomly assigned to either an interactive pain education (PE) program, which addressed gaps in knowledge such as medication management, or an interactive control program consisting of general dementia education without a specific clinical focus. Participants attended three sessions, each lasting 3 h, and completed measures of pain-related knowledge and attitudes/beliefs before, immediately after and two weeks following the program. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants to gauge perception of the training program and barriers to implementing pain-related strategies.RESULTS: Analysis using ANOVA revealed that PE participants demonstrated larger gains compared with control participants with regard to pain knowledge and pain beliefs. Barriers to implementing pain-related strategies certainly exist. Nonetheless, qualitative analyses demonstrated that PE participants reported that they overcame many of these barriers and used pain management strategies four times more frequently than control participants.CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous research, the present study found that the interactive PE program was effective in changing pain beliefs and improving knowledge. Continuing PE in LTC has the potential to address knowledge gaps among front-line LTC providers. Item Open AccessThe Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: A Review with a Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Item Content and Factor Structure(Public Library of Science, 2013-03-01) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel, A.; Teale, Michelle, J. N.; Welch, Patrick, G.; Abrams, Murray, P.; Robinson, Thomas; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) is a commonly used freely available self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Despite its popularity, several recent investigations have called into question the robustness and suitability of the commonly used 4-factor 20-item CES-D model. The goal of the current study was to address these concerns by confirming the factorial validity of the CES-D. Item Open AccessNative reading direction influences lateral biases in the perception of shape from shading(Taylor & Francis, 2014-12-24) Smith, Austen, K.; Szelest, Izabela; Friedrich, Trista, E.; Elias, Lorin, J.Although neurologically normal individuals often exhibit leftward biases of perception and attention, known as pseudoneglect, factors such as lighting, spatial location and native reading direction have been found to modulate these biases. To investigate lighting and spatial biases in left-to-right and right-to-left readers search times were measured in a target finding task where lighting and target locations were manipulated. Target search times under upper-left lighting were significantly shorter than lower-left, upper-right and lower-right lighting among left-to-right readers. Right-to-left readers did not display the same leftward bias, even displaying significantly shorter search times under upper-right lighting than those of left-to-right readers. Significantly shorter search times for targets located in the upper-left quadrant (compared to other quadrants) were observed for left-to-right readers, while search times for upper-right located targets were significantly shorter for right-to-left readers compared to those of left-to-right readers. Participant scan times of stimuli divided into equal quadrants were monitored by an eye-tracking camera. Both groups displayed greater scan times in upper quadrants. These findings suggest that native reading direction modulates spatial and light perception biases resulting in weaker leftward, or a lack of lateral biases among right-to-left readers. Item Open AccessTake your seats: leftward asymmetry in classroom seating choice(Frontiers Media S.A., 2015-08-17) Harms, Victoria, L.; Poon, Lisa, J.O.; Smith, Austen, K.; Elias, Lorin, J.Despite an overall body symmetry, human behavior is full of examples of asymmetry, from writing or gesturing to kissing and cradling. Prior research has revealed that theatre patrons show a bias towards sitting on the right side of a movie theatre. Two competing theories have attempted to explain this seating asymmetry: one posits that expectation of processing demand drives the bias; the other posits that basic motor asymmetries drive the bias. To test these theories we assessed the real-world classroom seating choices of university students using photographs. A bias for students to choose seats on the left side of the classroom was observed, in contrast to the right side bias observed in theatre seating studies. These results provide evidence in support of a processing-expectation bias. Item Open AccessIncidental statistical summary representation over time(Arvo, 2016-02-01) Oriet, Chris; Hozempa, KadieInformation taken in by the human visual system allows individuals to form statistical representations of sets of items. One's knowledge of natural categories includes statistical information, such as average size of category members and the upper and lower boundaries of the set. Previous research suggests that when subjects attend to a particular dimension of a set of items presented over an extended duration, they quickly learn about the central tendency of the set. However, it is unclear whether such learning can occur incidentally, when subjects are not attending to the relevant dimension of the set. The present study explored whether subjects could reproduce global statistical properties of a set presented over an extended duration when oriented to task-irrelevant properties of the set. Subjects were tested for their memory of its mean, its smallest and largest exemplars, the direction of its skew, and the relative distribution of the items. Subjects were able to accurately recall the average size circle, as well as the upper and lower boundaries of a set of 4,200 circles displayed over an extended period. This suggests that even without intending to do so, they were encoding and updating a statistical summary representation of a task-irrelevant attribute of the circles over time. Such incidental encoding of statistical properties of sets is thus a plausible mechanism for establishing a representation of typicality in category membership. Item Open AccessInto the unknown: A review and synthesis of contemporary models involving uncertainty(Elsevier, 2016-02-27) Carleton, R. NicholasThe current review and synthesis serves to define and contextualize fear of the unknown relative to related constructs, such as intolerance of uncertainty, and contemporary models of emotion, attachment, and neuroticism. The contemporary models appear to share a common core in underscoring the impor- tance of responses to unknowns. A recent surge in published research has explored the transdiagnostic impact of not knowing on anxiety and related pathologies; as such, there appears to be mounting evidence for fear of the unknown as an important core transdiagnostic construct. The result is a robust foundation for transdiagnostic theoretical and empirical explorations into fearing the unknown and intolerance of uncertainty. Item Open AccessFear of the unknown: One fear to rule them all?(Elsevier, 2016-03-29) Carleton, R. NicholasThe current review and synthesis was designed to provocatively develop and evaluate the proposition that “fear of the unknown may be a, or possibly the, fundamental fear” (Carleton, 2016) underlying anxiety and therein neuroticism. Identifying fundamental transdiagnostic elements is a priority for clinical theory and practice. Historical criteria for identifying fundamental components of anxiety are described and revised criteria are offered. The revised criteria are based on logical rhetorical arguments using a constituent reductionist postpositivist approach supported by the available empirical data. The revised criteria are then used to assess several fears posited as fundamental, including fear of the unknown. The review and synthesis concludes with brief recommendations for future theoretical discourse as well as clinical and non-clinical research. Item Open AccessIntolerance of Uncertainty: A Temporary Experimental Induction Procedure(Public Library of Science, 2016-06-02) Mosca, Oriana; Lauriola, Marco; Carleton, R. NicholasIntolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trans-diagnostic construct involved in anxiety and related disorders. Research focused on cross-sectional reporting, manipulating attitudes toward objective and impersonal events or on treatments designed to reduce IU in clinical populations. The current paper presents an experimental procedure for laboratory manipulations of IU and tests mediation hypotheses following the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model. Item Open AccessHierarchical factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short form (IUS-12) in the Italian version(Cises, Srl, 2016-09) Lauriola, Marco; Mosca, Oriana; Carleton, R. NicholasDespite widespread use, few translations are available for the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short form (IUS-12) as well as limited research on its psychometric properties in Italy. Moreover, recent evi- dence has suggested a multifaceted hierarchical structure for this scale. We compared the two-factor model to second-order and bi-factor models, in which a General IU factor was posited with two more nar- row factors: Prospective IU and Inhibitory IU. Models were tested on a pooled dataset of students (N = 609) taking the IUS-12 alone or with other IUS-27 items. The bi-factor model fitted the sample data better than alternative models. The general factor accounted for 80% of the item variance. Presentation mode did not impact scalar invariance. Convergent validity with neuroticism, need for closure, and the uncertainty response scale was high for the total score. As such, scoring the IUS-12 total score is recommended in clinical research and assessment. Item Open AccessMental Disorder Symptoms among Public Safety Personnel in Canada(SAGE Publications, 2017-08-28) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Afifi, Tracie, O; Turner, Sarah; Taillieu, Tamara; Duranceau, Sophie; LeBouthillier, Daniel, M.; Sareen, Jitender; Ricciardelli, Rosemary; MacPhee, Renee; Groll, Dianne; Hozempa, Kadie; Brunet, Alain; Weekes, John, R.; Griffiths, Curt, T.; Abrams, Kelly, J.; Jones, Nicholas, A.; Beshai, Shadi; Cramm, Heidi, A.; Dobson, Keith, S.; Hatcher, Simon; Keane, Terence, M.; Stewart, Sherry, H.; Asmundson, GordonCanadian public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) are exposed to potentially traumatic events as a function of their work. Such exposures contribute to the risk of developing clinically significant symptoms related to mental disorders. The current study was designed to provide estimates of mental disorder symptom frequencies and severities for Canadian PSP. Item Open AccessChronic pain among public safety personnel in Canada(Taylor and Francis Group, 2017-12-18) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Afifi, Tracie, O.; Turner, Sarah; Taillieu, Tamara; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Sareen, Jitender; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.Chronic pain is highly prevalent in the general population and may be even higheramong public safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional officers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics,police). Comprehensive data on chronic pain among diverse Canadian PSP are relatively sparse.Aims: The current study was designed to provide initial estimates of chronic pain frequencyand severity among Canadian PSP. Item Open AccessPersonal relative deprivation associated with functional disorders via stress: An examination of fibromyalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms(Public Library of Science, 2017-12-27) Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sanju; Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R. NicholasPersonal relative deprivation is a negative social comparison process typified by self-com- parison, negative appraisal, and resultant negative emotionality. Personal relative depriva- tion has been associated with poorer physical and mental health in several domains. It has been hypothesized that the deprivation-health link operates through a stress pathway. Stress has been specifically implicated in the onset and maintenance of functional disor- ders, including fibromyalgia and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Despite the theoretical links between personal deprivation, stress, and functional disorders, researchers have not assessed relationships between these variables. Item Open AccessCultural differences in lateral biases on aesthetic judgments: The effect of native reading direction(Springer, 2018-03-17) Flath, Meghan, E.; Smith, Austen, K.; Elias, Lorin, J.Left-to right (LTR) or right-to-left (RTL) directionality bias has been proposed to influence individuals’ aesthetic preference for dynamic stimuli. Two general theoretical propositions attempt to account for this bias. One states that directionality bias is based on scanning habits due to cultural differences in native reading/writing direction, whereas the other proposition speculates that LTR motion bias occurs due to the right hemisphere’s specialization in visuospatial processing. The current study assessed the aesthetic preference bias present when native LTR and RTL readers evaluated fashion garments on the runway in LTR or RTL motion. The aim of the study was to assess aesthetic preference bias for a novel dynamic stimulus and the corresponding influence of biological and cultural factors. Native LTR and RTL readers viewed two blocks of 20 mirror-reversed video pairs with models wearing dresses on a runway. Participants indicated which dress within the mirror-reversed pair they preferred. LTR readers displayed a significant leftward aesthetic preference bias indicating a preference for dresses moving LTR. RTL readers did not display a significant aesthetic preference bias for dresses moving in either direction. These results further support the generalizability of aesthetic preference biases for novel dynamic stimuli and support seminal literature that argues the bias occurs due to a combination of hemispheric dominance and cultural differences in native reading/writing direction. Item Open AccessThe Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory: Validity and Comparison of Scoring Methods to Assess Individuals Screening Positive for Anxiety and Depression(Frontiers Media, 2018-03-26) Lauriola, Marco; Mosca, Oriana; Trentini, Cristina; Foschi, Renato; Tambelli, Renata; Carleton, R. NicholasIntolerance of Uncertainty is a fundamental transdiagnostic personality construct hierarchically organized with a core general factor underlying diverse clinical manifestations. The current study evaluated the construct validity of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory, a two-part scale separately assessing a unitary Intolerance of Uncertainty disposition to consider uncertainties to be unacceptable and threatening (Part A) and the consequences of such disposition, regarding experiential avoidance, chronic doubt, overestimation of threat, worrying, control of uncertain situations, and seeking reassurance (Part B). Community members (N = 1046; Mean age = 36.69 ± 12.31 years; 61% females) completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Inventory with the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Part A demonstrated a robust unidimensional structure and an excellent convergent validity with Part B. A bifactor model was the best fitting model for Part B. Based on these results, we compared the hierarchical factor scores with summated ratings clinical proxy groups reporting anxiety and depression symptoms. Summated rating scores were associated with both depression and anxiety and proportionally increased with the co-occurrence of depressive and anxious symptoms. By contrast, hierarchical scores were useful to detect which facets mostly separated between for depression and anxiety groups. In sum, Part A was a reliable and valid transdiagnostic measure of Intolerance of Uncertainty. The Part B was arguably more useful for assessing clinical manifestations of Intolerance of Uncertainty for specific disorders, provided that hierarchical scores are used. Overall, our study suggest that clinical assessments might need to shift toward hierarchical factor scores. Item Open AccessAnxiety-related psychopathology and chronic pain comorbidity among public safety personnel(Elsevier, 2018-03-28) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Afifi, Tracie, O; Taillieu, Tamara; Turner, Sarah; El-Gabalawy, Renee; Sareen, Jitender; Asmundson, GordonCanadian Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional service officers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers) regularly experience potentially traumatic, painful, and injurious events. Such exposures increase risk for developing mental disorders and chronic pain, which both involve substantial personal and social costs. The interrelationship between mental disorders and chronic pain is well-established, and both can be mutually maintaining; accordingly, understanding the relationship between mental health and chronic pain among PSP is important for improving health care. Unfortunately, the available research on such comorbidity for PSP is sparse. The current study was designed to provide initial estimates of comorbidities between mental disorders and chronic pain across diverse PSP. Participants included 5093 PSP (32% women) in six categories (i.e., Call Center Operators/Dispatchers, Correctional Workers, Firefighters, Municipal/Provincial Police, Paramedics, Royal Canadian Mounted Police) who participated in a large PSP mental health survey. The survey included established self-report measures for mental disorders and chronic pain. In the total sample, 23.1% of respondents self-reported clinically significant comorbid concerns with both mental disorders and chronic pain. The results indicated PSP who reported chronic pain were significantly more likely to screen positive for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and alcohol use disorder. There were differences between PSP categories; but, the most consistent indications of comorbidity were for chronic pain, PTSD, and major depressive disorder. Comorbidity between chronic pain and mental disorders among PSP is prevalent. Health care providers should regularly assess PSP for both symptom domains. Item Open AccessA longitudinal assessment of the road to mental readiness training among municipal police(Taylor and Francis Group, 2018-06-18) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Korol, Stephanie; Mason, Julia, E.; Hozempa, Kadie; Anderson, Gregory, S.; Jones, Nicholas, A.; Dobson, Keith, S.; Szeto, Andrew; Bailey, SuzannePolice agencies increasingly implement training programs to protect mental health. The Road to Mental Readiness (R2MR) program was designed by the Canadian military to increase mental health resilience. A version of R2MR was adapted for municipal police by the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). The current research was designed to assess the R2MR program, as adapted and delivered by the MHCC, in a municipal police sample. Participants were 147 Canadian police agency employees (57% women) who received a single R2MR training session. Participants completed pre- and post-training self-report questionnaires, and follow-ups at 6 and 12 months. The questionnaires assessed mental health symptoms, work engagement, resiliency, mental health knowledge, and stigma. Multilevel modeling analyses assessed for within-participant changes over time. The results were consistent with other single session interventions; specifically, there were no significant changes in mental health symptoms, resilience, or work engagement (p > .05). There were small, but significant (p < .05), reductions in stigma at post-training that may facilitate help-seeking among police; relatedly, in open-ended response fields, participants commonly described the training as helpful for changing attitudes and improving communication. More engagement with the material may produce larger, sustained gains, but more published research is critically needed. Item Open AccessExperiences of trauma, depression, anxiety, and stress in western-Canadian HEMS personnel(Community Safety Knowledge Alliance, 2018-10-17) Harenberg, Sebastian; McCarron, Michelle, C. E.; Carleton, R. Nicholas; O'Malley, Thomas; Ross, TerryMental health in first responders and other public safety personnel has received substantial research attention in the past decade. Emergency medical services (EMS) demonstrate a heightened prevalence of maladaptive mental health concerns compared to other first responders (e.g., police, fire fighters). Interestingly, there is an absence of research examining helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) personnel, who respond to what are often life-threatening cases in challenging circumstances. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to assess the experiences of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and associated mental health conditions (i.e., depression, anxiety, stress) in HEMS workers. HEMS workers from a single mid-western Canadian organization (n = 100) participated in the study. The participants completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5) and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) as part of an online survey. The results revealed that five per cent of HEMS personnel experienced heightened PTSD symptoms. Few participants exhibited signs of mild to severe depression, anxiety, and stress (< 17%). HEMS personnel experienced fewer mental health concerns than other first responder groups as reported in the literature; indeed, these figures are similar to levels observed within the general population. These findings may be explained by organizational or personality characteristics. Underreporting of mental health concerns may be an alternate explanation. Future qualitative and quantitative research is needed to explain and replicate the results of the present study. Item Open AccessMental Health Training, Attitudes Towards Support, and Screening Positive for Mental Disorders(Taylor and Francis Group, 2019-02-22) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Afifi, Tracie, O.; Turner, Sarah; Taillie, Tamara; Vaughan, Adam, V.; Anderson, Gregory, S.; Ricciardelli, Rosemary; MacPhee, Renée, S.; Cramm, Heidi; Czarnuch, Stephen; Hozempa, Kadie; Camp, Ronald, D.Public Safety Personnel (PSP; e.g. correctional workers, dispatchers, firefighters, paramedics, police) are frequently exposed to potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Several mental health training program categories (e.g. critical incident stress management (CISM), debriefing, peer support, psychoeducation, mental health first aid, Road to Mental Readiness [R2MR]) exist as efforts to minimize the impact of exposures, often using cognitive behavioral therapy model content, but with limited effectiveness research. The current study assessed PSP perceptions of access to professional (i.e. physicians, psychologists, psychiatrists, employee assistance programs, chaplains) and non-professional (i.e. spouse, friends, colleagues, leadership) support, and associations between training and mental health. Participants included 4,020 currently serving PSP participants. Data were analyzed using cross-tabulations and logistic regressions. Most PSP reported access to professional and non-professional support; nevertheless, most would first access a spouse (74%) and many would never, or only as a last resort, access professional support (43–60%) or PSP leaders (67%). Participation in any mental health training category was associated with lower (p < .01) rates for some, but not all, mental disorders, with no robust differences across categories. Revisions to training programs may improve willingness to access professional support; in the interim, training and support for PSP spouses and leaders may also be beneficial.