Psychology Undergraduate Honours Theses

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  • ItemOpen Access
    Pointing fingers: moral judgements and law enforcement perception in online true crime communities
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2023) Nadeem, Safa
    In the digital age, civilian interest in criminal cases has seen an upsurge over the past few years, leading to speculation, misinformation, and action on the part of online users. The November 2022 murder of four college students sent shockwaves across online communities, stoking widespread interest and drawing thousands to a single forum on Reddit. This study sought to analyze digitally-based civilian policing, addressing the current rise of online true crime communities. Leveraging Haidt and Graham’s Moral Foundations Theory (2007), this study examined the psychological processes that may be involved in public information consumption and online behaviour in response to criminal cases. The present research sought to understand whether the ubiquity of criminal cases in online spaces led citizens to participate in websleuthing forums as an outlet for moral judgement. We proposed that moral foundations language would be prevalent in Reddit discussions regarding the Idaho University criminal case and would be associated with police attitudes. Data was collected from the largest Reddit forum pertaining to the case. Both quantitative analyses (independent sample t-tests) and inductive methods (using Pennebaker et al.’s 2022 Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count Program and qualitative description) were used. Results demonstrated that fairness-related language was more prevalent in posts pertaining to law enforcement. Findings may advance knowledge on community engagement with law enforcement, and the broader scheme of internet culture relative to moral-psychological phenomena.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Teacher and education students’ knowledge of children’s understanding of arithmetic concepts
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2023-04) Fohr, Raelynn.
    Arithmetic concepts such as Equivalence (understanding the equals sign means that both sides of an equation are balanced), Inversion (understanding some pairs of operations are inversely related), and Associativity (understanding some problems can be solved in any order) are understood to give a deeper understanding of math (Wong, 2017). As well, the use of strategies that show an understanding of these concepts has been suggested to improve children’s accuracy on math problems (Chesney et al., 2013; Dubé & Robinson, 2010). Within this study, Teachers and Undergraduate Education students completed an online survey asking them to solve math problems that could be solved using a conceptually-based strategy. As well, participants were asked questions regarding their math anxiety and comfort teaching math. Finally, participants were asked to estimate at what grade 50% of children would apply a conceptually-based strategy to solve problems. Participants were only accurate estimating when 50% of children understood additive inversion. Participants overestimated children’s understanding of the concepts of associativity, equivalence, and multiplicative inversion. As well, it was found that higher math teaching anxiety was correlated with more conceptually-based strategy use, and higher maximum grade comfortable teaching math was correlated with less accuracy and conceptually-based strategy use. Overall, these findings indicated that more needs to be done to address education professionals estimates of children’s understanding.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Eye love arithmetic: an inversion and associativity eye tracking study
    (Faculty of Science, University of Regina, 2024-04) McCullough, Natalie
    Arithmetic is important for developing the cognitive and problem-solving skills that are fundamental for higher levels of math. As such, it is important that individuals understand arithmetic concepts such as inversion and associativity, which can be reflected in how they solve three-term arithmetic problems. If an adult solves an inversion problem like 27 + 46 – 46 by cancelling the 46s, it suggests they understand inversion and have used an inversion shortcut. Similarly, when adults solve an associativity problem like 3 × 26 ÷ 13 by first computing 26 ÷ 13, they have used an associativity shortcut. To deconstruct why some individuals are better at using shortcuts, the current study used an eye tracker to generate heat maps and compare the visual attention of shortcut users to shortcut non-users. Participants (n =22) solved 32 three-term arithmetic problems while their eye fixations were tracked. Half of the problems were inversion, and the other half were associativity. Problems differed by operators (additive or multiplicative) and their format (conducive or non-conducive). Results support previous findings that adults are more accurate and use more shortcuts on inversion, additive, and conducive problems than associativity, multiplicative, and non-conducive problems. When comparing the eye movements of shortcut users to shortcut non-users, the heat maps indicate that participants focused on different areas. Further visual and statistical analyses are needed to compare the eye movements of shortcut users to shortcut non-users. Continuing to study the visual attention of shortcut users might explain why they perform well on these problems.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Adults’ perceptions of child eyewitness credibility: multiple independent lineups
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04) Engel, Katherine M.
    Eyewitness testimony is a powerful piece of evidence in criminal cases (O’Neill et al., 2011; Neal et al., 2012), but this can be problematic as eyewitness testimony is a leading cause of wrongful convictions (Innocence Project, 2023). Mistaken eyewitness testimony is prominent in children, as children identify innocent suspects more frequently than adults (Fitzgerald & Price, 2015). Age-appropriate lineup techniques have been explored to reflect child eyewitness accuracy, such as the multiple independent lineups technique (MIL; Carr & Bruer, 2023). Although Carr & Bruer (2023) found promising results using the MIL technique with children, how adults perceive child eyewitness credibility through MIL was unstudied. This study aimed to fill this gap in how adults perceive child eyewitness credibility on the MIL. To do so, juryeligible participants (N =176. 73% female, 24% male, 3% identified as other [i.e., nonbinary], Mage = 23.26, SD = 7.85) read a mock trial transcript where the child eyewitness made their identification(s) of the suspect through the traditional lineup or the MIL technique. Perceived credibility for the participants was measured through several different dimensions (i.e., identification, overall credibility, honesty, and cognitive ability). Largely, the results did not indicate any significant differences across lineup techniques (traditional lineup or MIL), nor the age of the child eyewitnesses (younger or older). This indicates that adults perceive child eyewitness credibility similarly regardless of technique used and age of the child eyewitness. Implications and future directions are discussed.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Punishment orientation and juror decision-making in sexual assault trials
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2023) Stevenson, Julianne
    Objectives: The study aimed to determine whether gender differences and punishment orientation predict juror decision-making in sexual assault trials. Hypotheses: There will be a main effect of punishment orientation, such that the more punishment-oriented someone is, the more likely they will find the defendant guilty. There will be a gender difference in verdict decision, such that women will be more likely to find the defendant guilty. This relationship will be qualified by an interaction with punishment orientation, such that there will be a gender difference in verdict only among those who are less punishment-prone. Method: A sample of N = 211 (101 female, 110 male) Canadian jury-eligible community participants were recruited through the crowdsourcing platform Prolific. Participants read a trial in which a man is charged with sexual assault against a woman. Participants chose a verdict (guilty, not guilty) and rated their confidence in that verdict (where 0 = not at all confident, and 10 = very confident). Participants then completed measures of rape myth acceptance and punishment orientation. Results: Consistent with previous research, we found that men showed higher rape myth endorsement than women and women were more likely to find the defendant guilty. There was no gender difference in POQ scores. POQ scores did not predict verdict decisions. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited research on punishment orientation in sexual assault trials while helping us to better understand the role that punishment plays in guilt decisions. The study tests the current legal assumptions about the right to a fair trial and whether juries can render decisions without considering punishment.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Walking trajectory by gender and reference frame is all-right
    (Faculty of Science, University of Regina, 2024-04) Graham-Rowe, Darby Jordan
    Each hemisphere of the brain has specialized functions. The right hemisphere is dominant for spatial processing in most people, and also processes the left field of vision. It is believed that these lateralized functions underlie the left visual field bias frequently observed on visuospatial tasks, wherein individuals appear to overattend the left side of space and slightly neglect the right. These lateralized functions are also thought to underlie the rightward collision bias frequently reported on laboratory navigation tasks, which would also necessarily entail a rightward walking trajectory. The present study used a naturalistic observational design to determine if walking behaviours in the real world demonstrate a rightward bias. Further, because differences in hemispheric function are more pronounced in men than women, perceived gender was also examined. Observations were made for both absolute walking side within a hall (allocentric reference frame) and passing side relative to another person (egocentric reference frame). Strict rightward biases were found independent of condition and perceived gender. These natural walking pattern findings are consistent with the rightward bias frequently reported on laboratory collision tasks, but are not consistent with findings on other laterality tasks in which women demonstrate smaller biases than men. This study is part of a larger international collaboration exploring the role that a country’s driving side may have in impacting natural walking biases and biases observed in laboratory collision and other visuospatial tasks.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The efficacy of the coping with infertility self-help program on sexual and relationship satisfaction
    (Faculty of Science, University of Regina, 2024-04) Wahl, Taryn D.
    Infertility affects one in six Canadian couples and is associated with elevated psychological, relational and sexual problems. Sexual problems may not only exacerbate infertility-related distress in couples but may also reduce intercourse frequency and pregnancy likelihood for those not using fertility treatments. The Coping With Infertility (CWI) Program was developed by the Reproductive Mental Health Research Unit to target the infertility-related distress of individuals assigned female at birth and is currently being tested in an ongoing randomized controlled trial. Because few studies focus on the sexuality of infertile couples, this study aimed to examine sexual and relationship satisfaction among CWI trial participants and their partners. Independent t-tests calculated the effects of intervention on self-report measures of distress and sexual and relationship satisfaction in AFAB participants. General linear models examined potential moderators of the treatment effects. Though baseline characteristics were identical among the two treatment groups, participants assigned to the treatment group (n = 15) reported significantly higher sexual and relationship satisfaction after the intervention than the control group (n = 19). Baseline scores, age, time spent trying to conceive, and use of fertility treatments did not significantly interact with these effects. Qualitative feedback highlighted benefits related to positive behavioural change, improved communication, and increased partner support. Though the number of participants is low, these preliminary results are promising and suggest that the CWI program improves the unique concerns of infertile couples.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Formula feeding stigma and perceived controllability: how different rationales for formula feeding impact judgements
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04-25) UnRuh, Lauren
    Only one study to date has experimentally demonstrated the existence of formula feeding stigma, negative attitudes towards mothers who formula feed rather than breastfeed. That study found evidence for the existence of formula feeding stigma and attributed its cause to perceived intentionality. That is, when researchers exposed participants to an Instagram post, allegedly written by a formula feeding mother, the participants rated the mother more negatively if she had always intended to formula feed than if she had not originally intended to formula feed. In the current study, we utilized a factorial design to explore whether the expressed stigma was truly a function of perceived intentionally or if perceived controllability was the more important factor. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of four social media posts about how a mother came to formula feed. In the posts, the mother formula fed for either a controllable reason (i.e., convenience) or an uncontrollable reason (i.e., surgery) and the decision was either intentional (i.e., she had always planned to formula feed) or unintentional (i.e., she had originally planned to breastfeed). Then they responded to questions measuring stigmatizing beliefs about the mother. Results indicated that when the mother reported formula feeding for a controllable reason she was rated less positively than when the mother reported formula feeding for an uncontrollable reason. As predicted, intentionality did not influence levels of formula feeding stigma. Therefore, when controllability is parsed out from intentionality, controllability is the more important factor in formula feeding stigma.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Risk and protective factors associated with depression severity in Canada: a population-based study of the 2017-2018 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04-15) Tessier, Eric
    Depression is a highly prevalent and costly contributor to the global burden of disease. Many empirically supported risk (e.g., sedentary behaviour) and protective (e.g., social support) factors associated with depression exist. Investigating the relationship of risk and protective factors with depression using a current, representative sample from the Canadian population provides utility for policy-makers and clinicians to shape messaging surrounding depression and target their future research and treatment effectively. The current investigation involved analysis of participant data (n = 113,290) from the 2017-2018 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). The CCHS makes use of psychometrically validated measures such as the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Social Provisions Survey (SPS-10) to assess depression and related factors. Using regression models, sleep, sedentary behaviour, and social support were demonstrated as pertinent risk and protective factors to be considered in future longitudinal research oriented towards depression (p <.001). Being younger, particularly between the ages of 20 and 29, and female emerged as sociodemographic predictors of depression (p <.001). Counterintuitively, physical activity was not a significant predictor of depression severity in the current study. Results of the present research provide valuable insight into the health behaviours of Canadians as they relate to depression. To address the unmet need in terms of mental health services in Canada, the development and dissemination of a self-guided program to treat mild-to-moderate depression may help to reduce the burden on primary care, and the Canadian healthcare system as a whole.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Sexual desire in perimenopause: the role of sex hormones and depressive symptoms
    (Faculty of Science, University of Regina, 2024-04-23) Preston, Duncan
    Sexual dysfunction and diminished sexual desire are common complaints among midlife women. These sexual difficulties may relate to the ovarian hormone changes that occur during the menopause transition (i.e., “perimenopause”). Levels of estradiol fluctuate during this period, at times reaching very low levels, which may result in physiological effects that, in turn, impact sexual function and desire. However, the extent to which perimenopausal changes in libido are directly related to hormone shifts remains unclear. Since the menopause transition is also associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms, perimenopausal mood changes may also contribute to perimenopausal changes in libido. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of within-person changes in weekly depressive mood and ovarian hormone levels on weekly libido. Fifteen perimenopausal women reporting clinically elevated levels of depressive symptoms were recruited. Once a week for eight weeks, they completed a survey assessing depressive mood and sexual desire and provided a urine sample for the measurement of the urinary metabolites of estradiol and progesterone, resulting in a total of 120 hormone-survey pairs. Multilevel modelling examining the within-person effects of hormones and depressive mood on sexual desire revealed that while with-person weekly changes in depressive symptoms significantly impacted sexual desire, weekly changes in ovarian hormones did not. In the future, our team will recruit additional participants to examine these relationships in a larger sample as well as investigate potential moderators in the relationship between hormone changes and sexual desire, such as prior history of sexual dysfunction.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Perceived intentionality and social perspective taking: when do we give others the benefit of the doubt
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04) Minel, Raelynne Nicole
    The intentions we attribute to others effect on how we perceive ambiguous actions. Think of the polarized interpretations of police conduct in the news where the same actions are witnessed by all but how those actions are perceived differs because of varying attributions of intent. The present study explored relationships between social perspective taking and attributions of intent in an online survey administered to ninety-three undergraduate students. Social perspective taking and attributions of intent were assessed in relation to an ambiguous sentence task as a measure of intentionality bias and a series of vignettes as a measure of hostile attributions of intent. It was hypothesized that intentionality bias would be associated with social perspective taking, social perspective taking would be associated with reduced hostile attribution bias, and a relationship between intentionality bias and hostile attribution bias would be mediated by social perspective taking. No relationship was found between intentionality bias and social perspective taking, but an inverse relationship was found between social perspective taking and hostile attribution bias as was found a relationship between intentionality bias and hostile attribution bias albeit not mediated by social perspective taking. These findings provide support for the assumption that intentionality bias and hostile attribution bias are related, and that social perspective taking and hostile attributions of intent are related, albeit negatively.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Cognitive processes that support adult memory for novel sequential actions
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04) McStravick, Haley B.
    Recalling the order of action sequences plays a considerable role in everyday routine functioning, but relatively little is known about the underlying cognitive processes behind the learning of such action sequences. The current study explored the role of prior knowledge in sequence learning, and the relative importance of verbal and motor processing during this learning. Participants viewed a series of action sequences and were either given prior knowledge of the object categories used in the sequences or not and were additionally asked to perform a motor or verbal dual task during learning, or had no dual task. After a delay they were asked to recall the sequence with a novel set of items. Recall for the action sequence was significantly stronger without the presence of a dual task, both with and without prior knowledge. There was also partial evidence that verbal processes may be more heavily involved in learning in comparison to motor processing. These findings indicate that full attention is required for action learning, and that real-world learning of actions may rely most heavily on verbal working memory.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Canadians’ opioid awareness: an analysis across multiple demographics
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04) Klatt, Brenna
    Canada is currently experiencing an opioid crisis that leads to many Canadian deaths each year. The present study is a quantitative analysis of data collected through Statistics Canada’s Survey on Opioid Awareness (2017). Participants (N= 5,116) answered questions related to their awareness of several topics including: the opioid issue in Canada, their personal opioid use, appropriate overdose response, sharing opioids, harm reduction services, and general information related to opioid use. These topics have been divided into 2 main scales: Awareness of Safe Opioid Use and Awareness of General Information Related to Opioid Use (6 items; r = 0.87). Factor analysis revealed 3 subscales within the first scale, Awareness of Safe Opioid Use. These subscales are Awareness of Appropriate Overdose Response (4 items; r = 0.75), Awareness of Related to Sharing Opioids (3 items; r = 0.63), and Awareness of Harm Reduction Services (3 items; r = 0.69). 3 in 10 participants reported using opioids in the past five years. The majority of those who used opioids were female (57.10% female vs. 42.90% male). Women also report being more aware of appropriate overdose response (54.41% female vs. 45.59% male). 80% of participants reported being at least somewhat aware that there is currently an opioid issue in Canada. Participants over the age of 80 are significantly less aware of general information related to opioid use and appropriate overdose response than most age groups. Residents of Quebec report significantly less opioid use in last five years as well as lower levels of awareness of general information related to opioid use than most provinces. Residents of British Columbia reported being significantly more aware of general information related to opioid use and appropriate overdose response. These findings provide insight into which Canadian populations have the greatest need for information related to opioid use and overdose.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Illness or immorality? Exploring the intersections of contamination and condemnation
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04) Hysuick-Weik, Braeden
    People prone to feelings negative emotions in response to contaminants (e.g., disgust) tend to have distinct moral views. But how do these people feel about the morality of those who are a potential source of contamination, such as those who appear ill? The current study was designed to explore the relationships between predispositions to contaminants and moral judgement of those displaying signs of illness. Undergraduate participants (N = 170) completed measures of obsessive-compulsive contamination symptoms, disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and purity-based morality. Participants then read a vignette depicting a person displaying signs of illness. After reading the vignette, participants rated that ill person's level of immorality and their own feelings of contamination. Greater levels of obsessive-compulsive contamination symptoms, disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and purity-based morality, and feelings of contamination were associated with harsher moral judgement of the person displaying signs of illness. Moreover, obsessive-compulsive contamination symptoms mediated the relationship between feelings of contamination and moral judgement of the person with signs of illness. These findings illuminate the importance of morality for individuals that often experience intense feelings - especially feelings that pertain to contamination. Moral psychology researchers have focused on how affects like disgust influence people's general moral principles. However, focusing on abstract principles overlooks the concrete behaviours that are relevant to people's moral lives. Clinical psychology researchers can improve understanding of mental health by exploring how individuals prone to intense affect react to relevant and provocative real-world situations.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Grooming detection: can children detect grooming tactics?
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04) Hamm, Natalie M.
    This study examined whether school-aged children (N = 524) are able to perceive grooming tactics and behaviours in adults. To do this, children read two short, vague stories containing elements of adult grooming behaviour. The stories were about a girl or boy leaving to help a custodian or coach. The child in the story went to either a private or public place with the adult for the first time or has helped the adult before and will return or not return from the secondary setting in the story. After reading the story, the child was asked follow-up questions to determine their perceptions. It was hypothesized that older children would have higher rates of detection than younger children and they would have higher rates of detection in the Return, Multiple, and Private conditions. No significant differences were found between the three story conditions, but older children were found to detect grooming at higher levels than younger children. These findings provide evidence as to why young children may be more likely to be victimized by such methods.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Predictors of self-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy tailored to public safety personnel
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2024-04-01) Demyen, Sam A.
    Public safety personnel (PSP) face higher rates of mental disorders compared to the general population. PSP also face many barriers to accessing mental health treatments. To support PSP mental health, PSPNET offers a transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) program delivered in a self-guided format known as the Self-Guided PSP Wellbeing Course. The current study aims to improve understanding of self-guided ICBT by (a) evaluating the effectiveness of the Self-Guided PSP Wellbeing Course at reducing symptoms of GAD, MDD, and PTSD; and (b) examining outcome predictors of the Self-Guided PSP Wellbeing Course. The current study used a longitudinal single-group design with data from 285 Canadian PSP who enrolled in the Self-Guided PSP Wellbeing Course. Measures were completed at pre-treatment as well as 8- and 20-weeks post-enrollment. Paired-samples t-tests and Hedges’ g assessed clinically significant changes and effect sizes on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress. Multiple regression analyses assessed outcome predictors. The Self-Guided PSP Wellbeing Course effectively reduced symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress from pre-treatment to 8-weeks post-enrollment, with small-to-moderate effect sizes. Symptom improvement remains stable at 20-week post-enrollment for symptoms of anxiety and depression. Higher pre-treatment resilience is associated with lower change scores of depression and posttraumatic stress at 8-weeks post-enrollment. Overall, the current study contributes to the growing body of research supporting the use of ICBT among Canadian PSP. With a larger sample, future research should examine whether baseline resilience predicts anxiety changes scores in self-guided ICBT.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The effect of mask wearing and emotional deficits on lateralized perception and expression of emotion
    (Faculty of Science, University of Regina, 2023-04-24) Stradeski, Zoe
    The posing bias is the phenomenon explaining that individuals perceive and express emotion more in the left side of the face. This is based on the right hemisphere hypothesis, which posits that emotions are typically processed in the right hemisphere of the brain. This study aims to assess this neurological bias in cases where not all facial cues are visible in the case of widespread mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in relation to emotion expression and perception deficits. Deficits of emotion perception and expression of interest are the result of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), wherein people with ASD have a significantly harder time recognizing and expressing emotion. ASD has also been linked to the subclinical emotional processing deficit called alexithymia, which is the inability to recognize or express others’ or one’s own emotions. The current study investigated these deficits and the influence that masking has on emotion perception and expression. In the present study, we recruited 44 undergraduate students who completed handedness, ASD, and alexithymia questionnaires and participated in two tasks: a forced choice task where they were presented with images posed left or right with and without a mask, and an expression task where they posed with and without a mask after reading two scripts. Findings suggest that alexithymia may be a better predictor of emotion expression and perception deficits than ASD, and that mask wearing may modulate lateral posing, warranting further review.
  • ItemOpen Access
    Categorization catastrophe: applying hypodescent and contact theory to biracial photo lineups
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2023) Steinke, Tilar
    Past research shows that biracial individuals tend to be categorized into the most marginalized group (i.e., hypodescent; Ho et al., 2011; Chao et al., 2013). Per contact theory, the quantity and quality of contact with Biracial people (Civile & McLaren, 2022) may predict outgroup categorization and biases (Dickter et al., 2015). The current study sought to examine the role of hypodescent and contact theory in understanding participants’ ability to categorize target faces. Participants were asked to categorize Black-White biracial targets on both a discrete and continuous scale, as well as complete the General Intergroup Contact Quantity and Contact Quality Scale. Results of the study generally followed the expected trajectory, indicating that estimates of ancestry roughly paralleled actual morph level. Neither Biracial nor Black contact was a significant predictor of categorization. Together, these findings may be used to craft photo lineup studies for a wider range of targets. We argue that Psycholegal researchers should expand their range of target groups to include biracial populations. Future researchers should attempt to replicate these findings with other mixedrace groups and control for observer race.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The influence of future expected outcomes on retrieval-induced forgetting in undergraduate students
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2023-04-24) Messaros, Sierra
    Retrieval-Induced Forgetting (RIF) is a cognitive phenomenon in which successful remembering of a strengthened memory item (Rp+) results in suppression and forgetting of related memory items (Rp-) compared to unpracticed memory items (Nrp) (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). Current research suggests that RIF is associated to a positivity bias of memory, where greater retrieval-induced forgetting effects result in remembering the past and imagining the future more positively (Giebl et al., 2016; Storm & Jobe, 2012). This study used the Retrieval Practice Paradigm to examine the dimensions and boundaries of the positivity bias correlation. Using the Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R) scale and the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale (TSWLS), RIF effects were able to test positivity and optimism by focusing on a broader episodic memory perspective, while also targeting specific episodic memory through event expectancies and outcomes (i.e., GPA estimations and likelihood of future event outcomes). We focused our analyses on individuals who demonstrated RIF. Results found no significant main effects of RIF among all participants, however a small portion of participants displayed stronger individual RIF effects. Effect sizes found no relationships between the optimism and positivity measures. We conclude with a discussion on methodology, retrieval time responses, and characteristics of RIF with broad versus specific memory. As well, we examine coping mechanisms of memory, and the role present situation influences perspective of past and future.
  • ItemOpen Access
    The intersection of race and gender in an insanity case
    (Faculty of Arts, University of Regina, 2023) Nakonechny, Sarah
    How jury members perceive race and gender in the courtroom has been an important topic for legal researchers given implications for the defendant’s right to a fair trial. The literature presents competing theories for how such categories may intersect to inform decision-making (i.e., double jeopardy and intersectional invisibility). The purpose of this study was to test whether U.S. jury-eligible community participants (N = 285) recruited via Prolific Academic would give harsher verdicts for Black and male defendants in an insanity case. Participants were tasked with reading a fabricated murder trial transcript where the defendant is diagnosed with schizophrenia - in which we manipulated the defendant’s race (Asian, Black, White) and gender (male, female) - then made verdict decisions and completed manipulation checks. There were no significant differences in verdicts as a function of race or genders. Researchers should replicate this experiment with a different set of case facts.