Item Open AccessTowards a Holistic Model of Care for Moral Injury: An Australian and New Zealand Investigation into the Role of Police Chaplains in Supporting Police Members following exposure to Moral Transgression(Springer, 2023-09-11) Phelps, Andrea J.; Madden, Kelsey; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Johnson, Lucinda; Carey, Lindsay B.; Mercier, Jean-Michel; Mellor, Andrew; Baills, Jeffrey; Forbes, David; Devenish-Meares, Peter; Hosseiny, Fardous; Dell, LisaPolice members can be exposed to morally transgressive events with potential for lasting psychosocial and spiritual harm. Through interviews with police members and police chaplains across Australia and New Zealand, this qualitative study ex- plores the current role that police chaplains play in supporting members exposed to morally transgressive events. The availability of chaplains across police services and the close alignment between the support they offer, and the support sought by police, indicates they have an important role. However, a holistic approach should also consider organizational factors, the role of leaders, and access to evidence- based treatment in collaboration with mental health practitioners. Item Open AccessDo trauma cue exposure and/or PTSD symptom severity intensify selective approach bias toward cannabis cues in regular cannabis users with trauma histories?(Elsevier, 2023-08-21) DeGrace, S.; Romero Sanchiz, P.; Tibbo, P.; Barrett, S.; Arenella. P.; Cosman, T.; Atasoy, P.; Cousijn, J.; Wiers, R.; Keough, MT; Yakovenko, I.; O'Connor, R.; Wardell, J.; Rudnick, A.; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Heber, A.; Stewart, SHTrauma cue-elicited activation of automatic cannabis-related cognitive biases are theorized to contribute to comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and cannabis use disorder. This phenomenon can be studied experimentally by combining the trauma cue reactivity paradigm (CRP) with cannabis-related cognitive processing tasks. In this study, we used a computerized cannabis approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess automatic cannabis (vs. neutral) approach bias following personalized trauma (vs. neutral) CRP exposure. We hypothesized that selective cannabis (vs. neutral) approach biases on the AAT would be larger among participants with higher PTSD symptom severity, particularly following trauma (vs. neutral) cue exposure. We used a within-subjects experimental design with a continuous between-subjects moderator (PTSD symptom severity). Participants were exposed to both a trauma and neutral CRP in random order, completing a cannabis AAT (cannabis vs. neutral stimuli) following each cue exposure. Current cannabis users with histories of psychological trauma (n = 50; 34% male; mean age = 37.8 years) described their most traumatic lifetime event, and a similarly-detailed neutral event, according to an established interview protocol that served as the CRP. As hypothesized, an AAT stimulus type x PTSD symptom severity interaction emerged (p = .042) with approach bias greater to cannabis than neutral stimuli for participants with higher (p = .006), but not lower (p = 0.36), PTSD symptom severity. Contrasting expectations, the stimulus type x PTSD symptoms effect was not intensified by trauma cue exposure (p = 0.19). Selective cannabis approach bias may be chronically activated in cannabis users with higher PTSD symptom severity and may serve as an automatic cognitive mechanism to help explain PTSD-CUD co-morbidity. Item Open AccessInternet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for symptoms of PTSD among public safety personnel: Initial outcomes of an open cohort preference trial of transdiagnostic and disorder-specific therapy(Elsevier, 2023-09-09) McCall, Hugh; Dear, Blake, F.; Landry, Caeleigh; Beahm, Janine D.; Gregory, Julia; Titov, Nickolai; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D.Public safety personnel (PSP) face high rates of mental health problems and many barriers to care. Initial outcomes of transdiagnostic internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) tailored for PSP are promising, but prior research has not evaluated outcomes of PTSD-specific ICBT among PSP or PSP's preferences for transdiagnostic or PTSD-specific ICBT. The current paper presents the initial outcomes (N = 150) of a mixed-methods observational study designed to (a) investigate preferences for transdiagnostic or PTSD-specific ICBT among PSP with elevated symptoms of PTSD and/or a primary concern with PTSD symptoms and (b) explore potential differences in client engagement, satisfaction, and symptom changes between the two forms of ICBT. PSP completed questionnaires before and after their preferred ICBT program. Mixed-methods analyses included generalized estimating equations, descriptive statistics, and inductive conventional qualitative content analysis. More clients (n = 85; 57 %) selected transdiagnostic ICBT than PTSD-specific ICBT (n = 65; 43 %), but the difference in the number of clients who selected each course was not statistically significant. Clients in both ICBT programs reported similar and favorable treatment satisfaction (e.g., 98 % would recommend the course to a friend), treatment engagement (i.e., 69 % accessed at least four of the five lessons), and pre-post improvement in symptoms (e.g., Hedges' g = 0.81 for reduction in PTSD symptom). Transdiagnostic ICBT resulted in greater reductions in symptoms of panic disorder than PTSD-specific ICBT. Qualitative analyses showed similarities across the ICBT programs in client feedback. The current study provides further evidence supporting the use and outcomes of ICBT for PSP in both transdiagnostic and disorder-specific formats. Implications for the literatures on PSP mental health and ICBT, as well as practical recommendations, are discussed. Item Open AccessDaily survey participation and positive changes in mental health symptom scores among Royal Canadian Mounted Police Cadets(Frontiers, 2023-08-04) Shields, Robyn E.; Teckchandani, Taylor A.; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Nisbet, Jolan; Krakauer, Rachel L.; Andrews, Katie L.; Maguire, Kirby Q.; Jamshidi, Laleh; Afifi, Tracie O.; Lix, Lisa M.; Brunet, Alain; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Krätzig, Gregory P.; Neary, J. Patrick; Sareen, Jitender; Carleton, R. NicholasIntroduction: Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officers self-report high levels of mental health disorder symptoms, such as alcohol use disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Participation in regular mental health monitoring has been associated with improved mental health disorder symptom reporting and may provide an accessible tool to support RCMP mental health. The current study assessed relationships between self-reported mental health disorder symptoms and the completion of daily surveys (i.e., daily mental health disorder symptom monitoring) by RCMP cadets during the Cadet Training Program (CTP). Methods: Participants were RCMP cadets (n = 394; 76.1% men) in the Standard Training Program who completed the 26-week CTP and daily self-monitoring surveys, as well as full mental health assessments at pre-training (i.e., starting the CTP) and pre-deployment (i.e., ~2 weeks prior to deployment to the field). Symptoms of alcohol use disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were assessed. Changes in mental health disorder symptom reporting from pre-training to pre-deployment were calculated. Spearman’s rank correlations were estimated for number of daily surveys completed and change in mental health disorder symptom scores between pre-training and pre-deployment. Results: There were statistically significant inverse relationships between number of daily surveys completed and number of mental health disorder symptoms reported; specifically, cadets who completed more daily surveys during CTP reported fewer symptoms of alcohol use disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Conclusion: An inverse correlation between number of daily surveys completed and mental health disorder symptom scores indicated that participation in daily mental health monitoring was associated with improvements in self-reported mental health disorder symptoms between pre-training and pre-deployment. Regular self-monitoring of mental health disorder symptoms may help to mitigate mental health challenges among RCMP cadets and officers. Item Open AccessChild Maltreatment History, Deployment-Related Traumatic Events, and Past 12-Month Cannabis Use Among Veterans in Canada(Sage, 2023-08-11) Afifi, Tracie O.; Taillieu, Tamara; Salmon, Samantha; Stewart-Tufescu, Ashley; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W.; Mota, Natalie; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Heber, Alexandra; VanTil, LindaObjective Cannabis use among veterans in Canada is an understudied public health priority. The current study examined cannabis use prevalence and the relationships between child maltreatment histories and deployment-related traumatic events (DRTEs) with past 12-month cannabis use including sex differences among Canadian veterans. Method Data were drawn from the 2018 Canadian Armed Forces Members and Veterans Mental Health Follow-up Survey (response rate 68.7%; veterans only n = 1,992). Five child maltreatment types and 9 types of DRTEs were assessed in relation to the past 12-month cannabis use. Results The prevalence of lifetime and past 12-month cannabis use was 49.4% and 16.7%, respectively. Females were less likely than males to report lifetime cannabis use (41.9% vs. 50.4%; odds ratio [OR] 0.71; 95% CI, – 0.59 to 0.86). No sex differences were noted for past 12-month cannabis use (14.1% vs. 17.0%; OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.07). Physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, any child maltreatment, most individual DRTEs, and any DRTE were associated with increased odds of past 12-month cannabis use after adjusting for sociodemographic and military variables. Some models were attenuated and/or nonsignificant after further adjustments for mental disorders and chronic pain conditions. Sex did not statistically significantly moderate these relationships. Cumulative effects of having experienced both child maltreatment and DRTEs compared to DRTEs alone increased the odds of past 12-month cannabis use. Statistically significant interaction effects between child maltreatment history and DRTE on cannabis use were not found. Conclusions Child maltreatment histories and DRTEs increased the likelihood of past 12-month cannabis use among Canadian veterans. A history of child maltreatment, compared to DRTEs, indicated a more robust relationship. Understanding the links between child maltreatment, DRTEs, and cannabis use along with mental disorders and chronic pain conditions is important for developing interventions and improving health outcomes among veterans. Item Open AccessUnderstanding PTSD among correctional workers in Manitoba, Canada: Key considerations of social variables(Wiley, 2023-06) McKendy, Laura; Taillieu, Tamara; Johnston, Matthew, S.; Ricciardelli, Rosemary; Ricciardelli, R. NicholasMounting evidence highlights the high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among correctional workers. The current analysis draws on survey response data to present a social profile of correctional workers in the province of Manitoba (n = 580), Canada, who screened positive for PTSD (n = 196). We examined demographic information, professional history information, and adverse work exposure experiences, as well as treatment and support patterns. The analysis was not intended to identify correlates of PTSD development among correctional workers, but did identify the characteristics, professional and personal situations, and treatment experiences of correctional workers who screened positive for PTSD. The results highlight the multidimensional nature of work stressors, the pronounced problem of work–life conflict, and variations in seeking supports and treatments. Generally, participants screening positive for PTSD reported higher exposure to potentially psychologically traumatic events, higher environmental or occupational stressors at work, and many had prior work experience as public safety personnel. Correctional workers who screened positive for PTSD appeared more likely to access mental health supports. Promoting proactive support seeking for mental health treatment may help to mitigate the severity, frequency, stigma, and length of mental health challenges among correctional workers. Item Open AccessParaprofessional delivery of online narrative exposure therapy for firefighters(Wiley, 2023-06-08) Olthuis, Janine V.; Kaltenbach, Elisa; Giberson, Emma; Saryeddine, Tina; Asmundson, Gordon J. G.; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Cramm, Heidi; Crombach, Anselm; Devlin, Julie; Mack, Jeff; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Rao, Sanjay; Sullivan, Michael; Wozney, Lori; McGrath, Patrick J.Firefighters are at increased risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and face numerous barriers to accessing mental health care. Innovative ways to increase access to evidence-based interventions are needed. This study was a case series testing the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of a paraprofessional-delivered, virtual narrative exposure therapy (eNET) intervention for PTSD. Participants were 21 firefighters who met the criteria for clinical or subclinical probable PTSD and completed 10–12 sessions of eNET via videoconference. Participants completed self-report measures pre- and postintervention and at 2- and 6-month follow-ups as well as a postintervention qualitative interview. Paired samples t tests evidenced statistically significant decreases in PTSD, anxiety, and depressive symptom severity and functional impairment from pre- to postintervention, ds = 1.08–1.33, and in PTSD and anxiety symptom severity and functional impairment from preintervention to 6-month follow-up, ds = 0.69–1.10. The average PTSD symptom severity score fell from above to below the clinical cutoff for probable PTSD at postintervention and follow-ups. Qualitative interviews indicated that paraprofessionals were considered central to participants’ success and experience with the intervention. No adverse events or safety concerns were raised. This study is an important step in demonstrating that appropriately trained and supervised paraprofessionals can effectively deliver eNET to firefighters with PTSD. Item Open AccessProvincial Correctional Service Workers: The Prevalence of Mental Disorders(Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2020-03-25) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Ricciardelli, Rosemary; Taillieu, Tamara; Mitchell, Meghan M.; Andres, Elizabeth; Afifi, Tracie O.Correctional service employees in Ontario, Canada (n = 1487) began an online survey available from 2017 to 2018 designed to assess the prevalence and correlates of mental health challenges. Participants who provided data for the current study (n = 1032) included provincial staff working in institutional wellness (e.g., nurses) (n = 71), training (e.g., program officers) (n = 26), governance (e.g., superintendents) (n = 82), correctional officers (n = 553), administration (e.g., record keeping) (n = 25 ), and probation officers (n = 144, parole officers). Correctional officers, workers in institutional administration and governance positions, and probation officers reported elevated risk for mental disorders, most notably posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder. Among institutional correctional staff, 61.0% of governance employees, 59.0% of correctional officers, 43.7% of wellness staff, 50.0% of training staff, and 52.0% of administrative staff screened positive for one or more mental disorders. In addition, 63.2% of probation officers screened positive for one or more mental disorders. Women working as correctional officers were more likely to screen positive than men (p < 0.05). Across all correctional occupational categories positive screens for each disorder were: 30.7% for PTSD, 37.0% for major depressive disorder, 30.5% for generalized anxiety disorder, and 58.2% for one or more mental disorders. Participants between ages 40 and 49 years, working in institutional governance, as an institutional correctional officer, or as a probational officer, separated or divorced, were all factors associated (p < 0.05) with screening positive for one or more mental disorders. The prevalence of mental health challenges for provincial correctional workers appears to be higher than federal correctional workers in Canada and further supports the need for evidence-based mental health solutions. Item Open AccessWhy Do Public Safety Personnel Seek Tailored Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Therapy? An Observational Study of Treatment-Seekers(Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2021-11-15) McCall, Hugh C.; Landry, Caeleigh A.; Ogunade, Adeyemi; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather, D.First responders and other public safety personnel (PSP) experience elevated rates of mental disorders and face unique barriers to care. Internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) is an effective and accessible treatment that has demonstrated good treatment outcomes when tailored specifically for PSP. However, little is known about how PSP come to seek ICBT. A deeper understanding of why PSP seek ICBT can inform efforts to tailor and disseminate ICBT and other treatments to PSP. The present study was designed to (1) explore the demographic and clinical characteristics, motivations, and past treatments of PSP seeking ICBT, (2) learn how PSP first learned about ICBT, and (3) understand how PSP perceive ICBT. To address these objectives, we examined responses to online screening questionnaires among PSP (N = 259) who signed up for an ICBT program tailored for PSP. The results indicate that most of our sample experienced clinically significant symptoms of multiple mental disorders, had received prior mental disorder diagnoses and treatments, heard about ICBT from a work-related source, reported positive perceptions of ICBT, and sought ICBT to learn skills to manage their own symptoms of mental disorders. The insights gleaned through this study have important implications for ICBT researchers and others involved in the development, delivery, evaluation, and funding of mental healthcare services for PSP. Item Open AccessPotentially Psychologically Traumatic Event Exposure Histories of new Royal Canadian Mounted Police Cadets(SAGE Publications, 2023-02-05) Andrews, Katie L.; Jamshidi, Laleh; Nisbet, Jolan; Brunet, Alain; Afifi, Tracie O.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Fletcher, Amber J.; Maguire, Kirby Q.; Teckchandani, Taylor A.; Lix, Lisa; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Sareen, Jitender; Keane, Terence M.; Neary, J. Patrick; Carleton, R. NicholasObjective Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) report extremely frequent and varied exposures to potentially psychologically traumatic events (PPTEs). While occupational exposures to PPTEs may be one explanation for the symptoms of mental disorders prevalent among serving RCMP, exposures occurring prior to service may also play a role. The objective of the current study was to provide estimates of lifetime PPTE exposures among RCMP cadets in training and assess for associations with mental disorders or sociodemographic variables. Methods RCMP cadets (n = 772; 72.0% male) beginning the Cadet Training Program (CTP) completed a survey assessing self-reported PPTE exposures as measured by the Life Events Checklist for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fifth Edition-Extended. Binomial tests were conducted to compare the current results to previously collected data from the general population, a diverse sample of public safety personnel (PSP) and serving RCMP. Results Cadets reported statistically significantly fewer PPTE exposures for all PPTE types than serving RCMP (all p’s < 0.001) and PSP (all p’s < 0.001) but more PPTE exposures for all PPTE types than the general population (all p’s < 0.001). Cadets also endorsed fewer PPTE types (6.00 ± 4.47) than serving RCMP (11.64 ± 3.40; p < 0.001) and other PSP (11.08 ± 3.23) but more types than the general population (2.31 ± 2.33; p < 0.001). Participants who reported being exposed to any PPTE type reported the exposures occurred 1–5 times (29.1% of participants), 6–10 times (18.3%) or 10 + times (43.1%) before starting the CTP. Several PPTE types were associated with positive screens for one or more mental disorders. There were associations between PPTE types and increased odds of screening positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) (all p’s < 0.05). Serious transport accident (11.1%), physical assault (9.5%) and sudden accidental death (8.4%) were the PPTEs most identified as the worst event, and all were associated with positive screens for one or more mental disorders. Conclusion The current results provide the first information describing PPTE histories of cadets, evidencing exposure frequencies and types much higher than the general population. PPTE exposures may have contributed to the cadet's vocational choices. The current results support the growing evidence that PPTEs can be associated with diverse mental disorders; however, the results also suggest cadets may be uncommonly resilient, based on how few screened positive for mental disorders, despite reporting higher frequencies of PPTE exposures prior to CTP than the general population. Item Open AccessMental Health of Royal Canadian Mounted Police at the Start of the Cadet Training Program(SAGE Publications, 2023-05-02) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Jamshidi, Laleh; Maguire, Kirby Q.; Lix, Lisa M.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Sareen, Jitender; Andrews, Katie L.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Nisbet, Jolan; Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Neary, J. Patrick; Brunet, Alain; Krätzig, Gregory P.; Fletcher, Amber J.; Teckchandani, Taylor A.; Keane, Terence M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.Objective Serving Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) have screened positive for one or more mental disorders based on self-reported symptoms with substantial prevalence (i.e., 50.2%). Mental health challenges for military and paramilitary populations have historically been attributed to insufficient recruit screening; however, cadet mental health when starting the Cadet Training Program (CTP) was unknown. Our objective was to estimate RCMP Cadet mental health when starting the CTP and test for sociodemographic differences. Method Cadets starting the CTP completed a survey assessing self-reported mental health symptoms (n = 772, 72.0% male) and a clinical interview (n = 736, 74.4% male) with a clinician or supervised trainee using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to assess current and past mental health. Results The percentage of participants screening positive for one or more current mental disorders based on self-reported symptoms (15.0%) was higher than the diagnostic prevalence for the general population (10.1%); however, based on clinical interviews, participants were less likely to screen positive for any current mental disorder (6.3%) than the general population. Participants were also less likely to screen positive for any past mental disorder based on self-report (3.9%) and clinical interviews (12.5%) than the general population (33.1%). Females were more likely to score higher than males (all ps<.01; Cohen's ds .23 to .32) on several self-report mental disorder symptom measures. Conclusions The current results are the first to describe RCMP cadet mental health when starting the CTP. The data evidenced a lower prevalence of anxiety, depressive, and trauma-related mental disorders than the general population based on clinical interviews, contrasting notions that more rigorous mental health screening would reduce the high prevalence of mental disorders among serving RCMP. Instead, protecting RCMP mental health may require ongoing efforts to mitigate operational and organizational stressors. Item Open AccessExploring item order in anxiety-related constructs: Practical impacts of serial position(2012-04) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel, A.; Osborn, Jason, A.; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.The present study was designed to test for item order effects by measuring four distinct constructs that contribute substantively to anxiety-related psychopathology (i.e., anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, injury/illness sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty). Participants (n = 999; 71% women) were randomly assigned to complete measures for each construct presented in one of two modalities: (a) items presented cohesively as measures or (b) items presented randomly interspersed with one another. The results suggested that item order had a relatively small impact on item endorsement, response patterns, and reliabilities. The small impact was such that item order appears unlikely to influence clinical decisions related to these measures. These findings not only have implications for these and other similar measures, but further inform a long-standing debate about whether item grouping is a substantial concern in measurement. Item Open AccessA controlled investigation of continuing pain education for long-term care staff(Hindawi, 2013) Ghandehari, Omeed, O; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Williams, Jaime; Thorpe, Lilian; Alfano, Dennis, P.; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Malloy, David, C.; Martin, Ronald, R.; Rahaman, Omar; Zwakhale, Sandra, M.G.; Carleton, R. Nicholas; Hunter, Paulette, V.; Lix, Lisa, M.The underassessment and undertreatment of pain in residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities has been well documented. Gaps in staff knowledge and inaccurate beliefs have been identified as contributors.OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness of an expert-based continuing education program in pain assessment/management for LTC staff.METHODS: Participants included 131 LTC staff members who were randomly assigned to either an interactive pain education (PE) program, which addressed gaps in knowledge such as medication management, or an interactive control program consisting of general dementia education without a specific clinical focus. Participants attended three sessions, each lasting 3 h, and completed measures of pain-related knowledge and attitudes/beliefs before, immediately after and two weeks following the program. Focus groups were conducted with a subset of participants to gauge perception of the training program and barriers to implementing pain-related strategies.RESULTS: Analysis using ANOVA revealed that PE participants demonstrated larger gains compared with control participants with regard to pain knowledge and pain beliefs. Barriers to implementing pain-related strategies certainly exist. Nonetheless, qualitative analyses demonstrated that PE participants reported that they overcame many of these barriers and used pain management strategies four times more frequently than control participants.CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous research, the present study found that the interactive PE program was effective in changing pain beliefs and improving knowledge. Continuing PE in LTC has the potential to address knowledge gaps among front-line LTC providers. Item Open AccessThe Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: A Review with a Theoretical and Empirical Examination of Item Content and Factor Structure(Public Library of Science, 2013-03-01) Carleton, R. Nicholas; Thibodeau, Michel, A.; Teale, Michelle, J. N.; Welch, Patrick, G.; Abrams, Murray, P.; Robinson, Thomas; Asmundson, Gordon, J. G.The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) is a commonly used freely available self-report measure of depressive symptoms. Despite its popularity, several recent investigations have called into question the robustness and suitability of the commonly used 4-factor 20-item CES-D model. The goal of the current study was to address these concerns by confirming the factorial validity of the CES-D. Item Open AccessHierarchical factor structure of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short form (IUS-12) in the Italian version(Cises, Srl, 2016-09) Lauriola, Marco; Mosca, Oriana; Carleton, R. NicholasDespite widespread use, few translations are available for the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale short form (IUS-12) as well as limited research on its psychometric properties in Italy. Moreover, recent evi- dence has suggested a multifaceted hierarchical structure for this scale. We compared the two-factor model to second-order and bi-factor models, in which a General IU factor was posited with two more nar- row factors: Prospective IU and Inhibitory IU. Models were tested on a pooled dataset of students (N = 609) taking the IUS-12 alone or with other IUS-27 items. The bi-factor model fitted the sample data better than alternative models. The general factor accounted for 80% of the item variance. Presentation mode did not impact scalar invariance. Convergent validity with neuroticism, need for closure, and the uncertainty response scale was high for the total score. As such, scoring the IUS-12 total score is recommended in clinical research and assessment. Item Open AccessIntolerance of Uncertainty: A Temporary Experimental Induction Procedure(Public Library of Science, 2016-06-02) Mosca, Oriana; Lauriola, Marco; Carleton, R. NicholasIntolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a trans-diagnostic construct involved in anxiety and related disorders. Research focused on cross-sectional reporting, manipulating attitudes toward objective and impersonal events or on treatments designed to reduce IU in clinical populations. The current paper presents an experimental procedure for laboratory manipulations of IU and tests mediation hypotheses following the Intolerance of Uncertainty Model. Item Open AccessFear of the unknown: One fear to rule them all?(Elsevier, 2016-03-29) Carleton, R. NicholasThe current review and synthesis was designed to provocatively develop and evaluate the proposition that “fear of the unknown may be a, or possibly the, fundamental fear” (Carleton, 2016) underlying anxiety and therein neuroticism. Identifying fundamental transdiagnostic elements is a priority for clinical theory and practice. Historical criteria for identifying fundamental components of anxiety are described and revised criteria are offered. The revised criteria are based on logical rhetorical arguments using a constituent reductionist postpositivist approach supported by the available empirical data. The revised criteria are then used to assess several fears posited as fundamental, including fear of the unknown. The review and synthesis concludes with brief recommendations for future theoretical discourse as well as clinical and non-clinical research. Item Open AccessInto the unknown: A review and synthesis of contemporary models involving uncertainty(Elsevier, 2016-02-27) Carleton, R. NicholasThe current review and synthesis serves to define and contextualize fear of the unknown relative to related constructs, such as intolerance of uncertainty, and contemporary models of emotion, attachment, and neuroticism. The contemporary models appear to share a common core in underscoring the impor- tance of responses to unknowns. A recent surge in published research has explored the transdiagnostic impact of not knowing on anxiety and related pathologies; as such, there appears to be mounting evidence for fear of the unknown as an important core transdiagnostic construct. The result is a robust foundation for transdiagnostic theoretical and empirical explorations into fearing the unknown and intolerance of uncertainty.