University of Regina Institutional Repository

The mission of the oURspace digital repository is to share and preserve the scholarly, creative, and cultural work produced at the University of Regina.

What are some of the benefits of depositing your works in oURspace?

  • Increased access to your scholarly publications.
  • Content is indexed and discoverable in Google Scholar.
  • Compliance with open access funding requirements.
  • Long term preservation of your work.

Please contact ourspace@uregina.ca if you have questions or want more information about oURspace.


Recent Submissions

ItemOpen Access
Qualitative Evaluation of Mental Health Capacity Building Pilot Project in Saskatchewan Schools
(Common Ground Research Networks, 2023-02-03) Oluwasegun Hassan; Ali Bell; Stacey Alexandre; Brent Rioux
School-based programs have been recommended as an effective way to tackle stigma and mental health burden among children and youth. As the Mental Health Capacity Building (MHCB) initiative was piloted across five Saskatchewan schools, this study sought to capture in-depth reflections from different stakeholders and provide experiential evidence of the initiative’s impacts. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with MHCB staff, teaching staff, student-leaders, and parents engaged in the initiative. A directed content analysis was used to synthesize the data and categorize them into four areas, further explained. The experiential evidence of the MHCB initiative showed improving mental health literacy, and positive emotional and social engagement for students (better health). The platform bridged the gap of care for some at-risk students in need of support or having difficulty reaching out (better care). The initiative inspired teacher integration of mental health programming into classrooms (better value) and created a wide network for mental health promotions (better teams). Overall, the MHCB initiative demonstrated encouraging evidence of improved mental health knowledge for engaged students and capacity building for engaged teachers in the schools and surrounding communities; hence, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impacts of universal mental health intervention for school-aged children.
ItemOpen Access
Mental Health Knowledge, Stigma, and Service Use Intentions Among Correctional Workers
(Canadian Psychological Association, 2023-11-30) Shields, Robyn E.; Ricciardelli, Rosemary; Jamshidi, Laleh; Carleton, R. Nicholas
Correctional workers are regularly exposed to potentially psychologically traumatic events, which are associated with mental health disorders. Correctional workers report barriers to mental health service use due to difficulties recognizing mental health needs and stigma, leading to compromised mental health. The current study was designed to assess nuances in mental health knowledge, stigma, and service use intentions among correctional workers and differences based on demographic categories and histories of mental health disorders. Participants (n = 878) were correctional workers from Ontario, Canada, who completed the Mental Health Knowledge Scale, the Opening Minds Scale for Workplace Attitudes, and the Mental Health Service Use Questionnaire. There were statistically significant differences on measures of mental health knowledge, stigma, and service use intentions across most demographic categories. There were statistically significant differences on a measure of mental health service use intentions between participants with and without a history of mental health disorders. Mental health knowledge contributed significantly to the variation in service use intentions. The current results provide initial baseline data for correctional workers regarding mental health knowledge, stigma, and service use intentions. The results evidence demographic differences that may help focus training efforts. The results also suggest experiencing mental health disorders may be insufficient to overcome mental health stigma, which means additional individual, organizational, and structural efforts are warranted to increase service use intentions among correctional workers as part of supporting better mental health.
ItemOpen Access
Web-Based Mindfulness Meditation as an Adjunct to Internet-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Public Safety Personnel: Mixed Methods Feasibility Evaluation Study
(JMIR Publications, 2024-01-30) Landry, Caeleigh A; McCall, Hugh C; Beahm, Janine D; Titov, Nickolai; Dear, Blake; Carleton, R Nicholas; Hadjistavropoulos, Heather D
Background: Public safety personnel (PSP) are individuals who work to ensure the safety and security of communities (eg, correctional workers, firefighters, paramedics, and police officers). PSP have a high risk of developing mental disorders and face unique barriers to traditional mental health treatments. The PSP Wellbeing Course is a transdiagnostic, internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) course tailored to assist PSP with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The initial course outcomes are promising, but some clients report some challenges with learning skills and recommend adding additional resources. Mindfulness meditations, which help people to experience the world and their reactions to the world in open and nonjudgmental ways, may complement the existing PSP Wellbeing Course. Objective: This study aims to examine the feasibility of mindfulness meditations in iCBT tailored for PSP. Information was gathered to evaluate engagement and client experiences with mindfulness meditations, symptom change, and the relationship between mindfulness meditation use and symptom change. Methods: A mixed methods study was conducted on PSP enrolled in the PSP Wellbeing Course who were offered 5 mindfulness meditations during the program (ie, 1/lesson). Clients completed questionnaires on depression, anxiety, PTSD, anger, insomnia, resilience, and mindfulness at pretreatment and at 8 weeks; an 8-week treatment satisfaction questionnaire; and brief weekly measures of mindfulness meditation engagement. We used paired sample t tests (2-tailed) to assess changes in outcomes over time and partial correlations to assess whether mindfulness meditation use predicted outcomes at posttreatment. A total of 12 clients were interviewed about their perceptions of the mindfulness meditations, and interviews were analyzed using directed content analysis. Results: Among the 40 clients enrolled, 27 (68%) reported using the mindfulness meditations, practicing for an average of 4.8 (SD 8.1) minutes each week. Most interviewees described the mindfulness meditations as beneficial but also reported challenges, such as discomfort while sitting with their feelings. Clients provided suggestions for better integration of mindfulness into iCBT. Overall, clients who completed the PSP Wellbeing Course with mindfulness meditations experienced statistically significant improvements in symptoms of anxiety (P=.001), depression (P=.001), PTSD (P=.001), and anger (P=.001) but not insomnia (P=.02). Clients also experienced improvements in resilience (P=.01) and mindfulness (P=.001). Self-reported time spent meditating was not associated with changes in symptoms over time.
ItemOpen Access
Measuring moral distress and moral injury: A systematic review and content analysis of existing scales
(Elsevier BV, 2024-03) Stephanie A. Houle; Natalie Ein; Julia Gervasio; Rachel A. Plouffe; Brett T. Litz; R. Nicholas Carleton; Kevin T. Hansen; Jenny J.W. Liu; Andrea R. Ashbaugh; Walter Callaghan; Megan M. Thompson; Bethany Easterbrook; Lorraine Smith-MacDonald; Sara Rodrigues; Stéphanie A.H. Bélanger; Katherine Bright; Ruth A. Lanius; Clara Baker; William Younger; Suzette Bremault-Phillips; Fardous Hosseiny; J. Don Richardson; Anthony Nazarov
Background: Moral distress (MD) and moral injury (MI) are related constructs describing the negative conse- quences of morally challenging stressors. Despite growing support for the clinical relevance of these constructs, ongoing challenges regarding measurement quality risk limiting research and clinical advances. This study summarizes the nature, quality, and utility of existing MD and MI scales, and provides recommendations for future use. Method: We identified psychometric studies describing the development or validation of MD or MI scales and extracted information on methodological and psychometric qualities. Content analyses identified specific out- comes measured by each scale. Results: We reviewed 77 studies representing 42 unique scales. The quality of psychometric approaches varied greatly across studies, and most failed to examine convergent and divergent validity. Content analyses indicated most scales measure exposures to potential moral stressors and outcomes together, with relatively few measuring only exposures (n = 3) or outcomes (n = 7). Scales using the term MD typically assess general distress. Scales using the term MI typically assess several specific outcomes.
ItemOpen Access
Examining how organizational leaders perceive internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy for public safety personnel using the RE-AIM implementation framework
(Elsevier BV, 2024-03) Janine D. Beahm; Hugh C. McCall; R. Nicholas Carleton; Nicholas Jones; Heather D. Hadjistavropoulos
Within Canada, internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (ICBT) has recently been tailored by PSPNET to meet the needs of public safety personnel (PSP) to help address high rates of mental health problems within this population. Perceptions and outcomes of ICBT among PSP are promising, but it remains unknown how PSPNET is perceived by PSP organizational leaders. It is important to assess this gap because these leaders have significant potential to influence the uptake of ICBT. Methods: In the current study, PSP leaders (n = 10) were interviewed to examine their perceptions of PSPNET and opportunities to improve ICBT implementation. The RE-AIM evaluation framework was used to assess PSP leaders' perceptions of PSPNET in terms of reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. Results: The results evidenced that leaders perceived PSPNET as effective in reaching and serving PSP and PSP organizations. PSP leaders reported perceiving ICBT as effectively implemented, especially for being freely offered to individual PSP and for improving PSP's access to experienced therapists specifically trained to work with PSP. Participants indicated organizations have promoted and will continue promoting PSPNET longer-term, facilitating adoption and maintenance. Factors perceived as facilitating successful service delivery included building relationships and trust with PSP organizations and general support for PSP leadership mental health initiatives. PSP leaders identified perceived areas for improving ICBT implementation (e.g., ensuring leaders have access to data on PSPNET uptake and outcomes, creating promotional videos, expanding availability of PSPNET to other provinces, offering additional options for receiving therapist support). Implications: Overall, the study provides insights into PSP leaders' perceptions of the implementation of ICBT among PSP and ideas for optimizing implementation efforts.