Trouble with the curve: the 90–9-1 rule to measure volitional participation inequalities among Royal Canadian Mounted Police cadets during training

dc.contributor.authorTaylor A. Teckchandani
dc.contributor.authorRobyn E. Shields
dc.contributor.authorKatie L. Andrews
dc.contributor.authorKirby Q. Maguire
dc.contributor.authorLaleh Jamshidi
dc.contributor.authorJolan Nisbet
dc.contributor.authorTracie O. Afifi
dc.contributor.authorLisa M. Lix
dc.contributor.authorSherry H. Stewart
dc.contributor.authorShannon Sauer-Zavala
dc.contributor.authorRachel L. Krakauer
dc.contributor.authorJ. Patrick Neary
dc.contributor.authorGregory P. Krätzig
dc.contributor.authorR. Nicholas Carleton
dc.description© 2024 Teckchandani, Shields, Andrews, Maguire, Jamshidi, Nisbet, Afifi, Lix, Stewart, Sauer-Zavala, Krakauer, Neary, Krätzig and Carleton. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
dc.description.abstractObjective: The Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Study includes longitudinal multimodal assessments of RCMP cadets from pre-training (i.e., starting the Cadet Training Program [CTP]) to post-deployment and for five years thereafter. The data allow for investigating the multidimensionality of volitional participation in digital health data collection frameworks within serial data collection platforms and the impact of participation inequalities by classifying cadets using the 90–9-1 rule. By classifying cadets as Lurkers, Contributors, and Superusers formally described by the 90–9-1 rule, where 90% of actors do not participate, 9% seldom contribute, and 1% contribute substantially allows for the assessing of relationships between participation inequalities in self-monitoring behaviors as well as whether mental health disorder symptoms at pre-training (i.e., starting the CTP) were associated with subsequent participation. Methods: Participants were asked to complete a Full Assessment prior to their training at CTP, as well as short daily surveys throughout their training. Participation frequency was described using a process where participants were rank ordered by the number of daily surveys completed and classified into one of three categories. Full assessment surveys completed prior to their training at CTP included screening tools for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use disorder (AUD), and panic disorder (PD). The Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to assess differences in participation rates between mental health disorder symptom screening groups for each measure at pre-training, and Spearman’s Rho was used to test for associations amongst self-reported Full Assessment screening tool responses and the number of daily surveys completed during CTP. Results: There were 18557 daily survey records collected from 772 participants. The rank-ordering of cadets by the number of daily surveys completed produced three categories in line with the 90–9-1 rule: Superusers who were the top 1% of cadets (n=8) and produced 6.4% of all recordings; Contributors who were the next 9% of cadets (n=68) and produced 49.2% of the recordings; and Lurkers who were the next 90% of cadets (n=695) and produced 44.4% of daily survey recordings. Lurkers had the largest proportion of positive screens for self-reported mental health disorders at pre-training. Conclusion: The creation of highly individualized, population-based mental health injury programs has been limited by an incomplete understanding of the causal relationships between protective factors and mental health. Disproportionate rates of disengagement from persons who screen positive for mental health disorders further compounds the difficulty in understanding the relationships between training programs and mental health. The current results suggest persons with mental health challenges may be less likely to engage in some forms of proactive mental health training. The current results also provide useful information about participation, adherence, and engagement that can be used to inform evidence-based paradigm shifts in health-related data collection in occupational populations.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe author(s) declare financial support was received for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article. The RCMP Study is funded by support from the RCMP, the Government of Canada, and the Ministry of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness. L. M. Lix is supported by a Tier I Canada Research Chair in Methods for Electronic Health Data Quality. T. O. Afifi is supported by a Tier I Canada Research Chair in Childhood Adversity and Resilience. S. H. Stewart is supported by a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Addictions and Mental Health. The development, analyses, and distribution of the current article was made possible by a generous and much-appreciated grant from the Medavie Foundation.
dc.identifier.citationTeckchandani TA, Shields RE, Andrews KL, Maguire KQ, Jamshidi L, Nisbet J, Afifi TO, Lix LM, Stewart SH, Sauer-Zavala S, Krakauer RL, Neary JP, Krätzig GP and Carleton RN (2024) Trouble with the curve: the 90–9-1 rule to measure volitional participation inequalities among Royal Canadian Mounted Police cadets during training. Front. Psychiatry 15:1297953. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2024.1297953
dc.publisherFrontiers Media SA
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers in Psychiatry
dc.titleTrouble with the curve: the 90–9-1 rule to measure volitional participation inequalities among Royal Canadian Mounted Police cadets during training
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